1.1         Background to the Study

Training is one of the most important issues for human resource management. Through appropriate training, organizations can rely on competent and motivated employees, ready to meet technological and strategic requirements while employees expect to meet their needs and desires and satisfy them through training. Literature reveals that human resources represent the most important and variable factor of the production process, besides being a vital and strategic element for any organization whose target is to improve its productivity and competitiveness (Kazaz and Ulubeyli 2007). Thus, the implementation of policies, programmes and practices related to human resources, such as those regarding selection, recruitment procedures, training, incentives and assessment, are closely related to the overall performance of the organization, which implies that human resources become a beneficial source of competitiveness (Osman et al. 2011).

Different researches consider training as one of the most important issues in the field of human resources (Loosemore et al. 2003, Porret 2007). This is so because training is an essential factor whenever availability and suitability of skilled workers, able to adapt themselves to the technological and strategic needs of the organization, are required. On the other hand, training is also essential to ensuring that employees get the appropriate skills to carry out their work successfully (Loosemore et al. 2003, Osman et al. 2011). Organizations involved in effective training programmes are better equipped to retain workers more satisfied with their job and, consequently, more committed to the company. Moreover, while satisfied workers are generally willing to accept the objectives and values of the organization (Schmidt 2007), training that does not fulfil workers‟ expectations and needs could generate negative attitudes (Schmidt 2009). However,

Schmidt (2004) noted that …results of many studies indicate that the effects of job training go beyond those that might be considered traditional, that is, acquisition of knowledge, the improvement of skill and the increasing of efficiency in the work place.

Manpower training and retraining has received attention in most public service review in Nigeria. Such review range from the Udoji Commission up to the reforms of 1988 (Civil Service (Reorganization) Decree No. 43 of 1988) which lifted training from the position of neglect to that of high priority by providing for the establishment of a training and welfare section in the Personnel department of each Ministry. The Udoji commission sought to create …..a service where concrete performance in the achievement of pre-

determined or organizational goals and target is the criteria for advancement and not seniority, tribe, language or sex of the officer concerned….a service that constantly

updated and keeps itself abreast of the latest techniques and advance in public management…(Imaga 2003:79)

One of the potent factors identified by the various public service reviews as militating against the evolution of a result oriented public service is inadequate training. The Public Service Rules (2008) made it mandatory in Chapter 2, Rule 020702(a) that “there shall be structured and sustained training for career progression in the service including continuous professional training and development”.

Training therefore, is a process of preparing or being prepared for desired standard of efficiency and behavior expectation by instruction and practice. It is an attempt to improve the performance of employees through learning usually carried out to change attitudes, increase their skills and knowledge. Proper training programmes and policy help to develop skills and to increase the morale of workers leading to job satisfaction.

The importance of training in an organization in accordance with relevant public service rules and scheme of service, could be argued to include among others, the preparation of staff for advancement in their fields or promotion to higher levels of work, recognition and responsibility; promotion of job satisfaction and maximization of staff productivity.

The Judicial Service Commission is an administrative body charged with recruitment, selection, promotion, training and discipline, among other functions, in respect of staff in the judicial service of government. The establishment of the Commission and its responsibilities and functions are set out in Section 2(1), Part II of the Third Schedule of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999.

Under the provisions of the said Constitution as amended and the Kogi State Judicial Service Commission Regulations, (2007), the Kogi State Judicial Service Commission, is expected to formulate policies, programmes and service rules/regulations that guide the operation and function of the Judicial service so as to ensure uniformity of administrative actions in each arm of court in the Kogi State judiciary. By the provision of the Kogi State Judicial Service Regulations (2007), the judicial Service Commission is expected to give policy direction as it may deem necessary. In view of the foregoing background, this research intends to examine the effect of training on job satisfaction in Kogi state judicial service.

1.2         Statement of the Problem

Many organizations have found it very important to invest on employees through training to improve employee proficiencies so that they can acquire a greater return in human capital investment through increased job satisfaction, commitment and high employee retention. The world is constantly shifting such that institutions of all types have to adapt to external and internal changes for their own survival (Cummings and Worley 2005).

However, understanding and influencing the human behaviour require knowledge of human needs. The feelings that a worker may have that his important needs are satisfied by the work he does determine the worker‟s morale.

The judicial arm of government is saddled with the responsibility to administer justice in society to all citizens without fear or favour but this can only be achieved with a satisfied workforce who is well trained, motivated and up to date in their knowledge and skills in order to deal with changes in the environment. Despite various training courses attended by staff, there has been low morale and dissatisfaction. This research is therefore confined to the dismal effort at management and reward for training and its attendant workers job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in Kogi State Judicial Service.

A memo from the Chief Registrar, High Court, dated June 24, 2008 with reference no. CR/COR/CJ/24/VOL. II/67, to the Chief Judge and Chairman of the Kogi State Judicial Service commission, noted with concern the spate of applications flooding his office requesting for promotion, change of cadre or normalization of appointments, all based on acquisition of additional qualifications/certificates which are not relevant to the training needs of the judicial service. According to the memo, employees have continued to go for one form of training course or the other to improve them-selves by getting additional qualifications for the purpose of promotion and career growth in the judicial service without recourse to any training needs, budgetary provisions for training and existence of vacancies. This development, the memo asserts, has adversely affected job satisfaction and staff morale. The memo concluded that:

…in order to curb the frustration in service and indiscriminate acquisition of certificates without commensurate staff placement and utilization and to make training relevant to area of job needs of the judicial service, there was a need to send out a circular to all staff to intimate them on the proper training policy for acquisition of additional qualifications in line with the scheme of service etc as a way forward in the new direction of due process.

It is not that the Kogi State Judiciary has not been releasing and allowing its staff to attend one form of training or the other, but over the years there has been no systematic approach to training in the Judicial Service. Staffs have embarked on various course of study in institutions of learning without recourse to official approval or the relevance of such courses to present job or area of training needs of the judicial service. This state of affairs has persisted despite earlier circular on the subject to all staff in 1991, with reference No. SCR/596/Vol.I/18. The said circular observed with concern the trend of officers going on courses of training not related to their cadre or present job and stressed that training should be rationalised to satisfy the need for increased efficiency and effectiveness on the job rather than regarding training as a welfare scheme for self development alone. It went on to warn that officers should not be released henceforth for training simply to enable them acquire certificates and additional qualifications alone but that training should be systematic, progressional and geared primarily at developing skills, knowledge and attitudes immediately relevant to an officers‟ job or warranting future conversion for career progression upon attainment of position of certain seniority in the cadre.

However, each staff that had admission for any course of training on their personal effort would proceed without recourse to management‟s approval and release, irrespective of relevance of the course to their present job. Apart from the general training policy and programme in use in the Public Service and scheme of service alluded to in the memo that covers all existing cadre of service, there has been no attempt to specify training