EFFECT OF TEACHERS MOTIVATION ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The search for collegiality is a motivating factor for teachers in the developing world as well. Most motivating in the developed world today is the existence of a community of practice in schools. According to Sergiovanni (2004), teachers are motivated when they are able to share a common body of knowledge. This can only happen when teachers have forums for discussions and training and development programmes. Recognition in the form of praise and constructive feedback from colleagues and the principal has a positive impact on teacher motivation, self-esteem, confidence and sense of security. Teachers long for recognition praise and feedback about their achievements and this is likely to motivate them professionally Steyn (2002) .Mexican public school teachers are eligible for large and permanent salary increases if they obtain scores above a cuto in a national assessment. The assessment includes measures of teachers‘background characteristics in addition to end-of-year student test scores. Education plays a very important role in the economic development of a country as it is aimed at supplying the economy with human capital that can convert effectively and efficiently other resources into output of high value. It is perceived as the corner stone of economic and social development and a principle means of providing for the welfare of individuals (Orodho, 2004). According to Alarm and Farid (2011), motivation of teachers is very important as it affects the students directly. This fact is supported by Marques (2010) in her conclusion that motivation, satisfaction and performance are interdependent.

Dornyei (2001) further states that teacher eicacy aects students directly as there is strong correlation between teacher eicacy and students’ performance hence a desired outcome by the students can occur with the help of the teacher. This means that low motivation of teachers aect his performance which aects the students’ performance. In the US teachers are being paid relatively low salaries. Teachers with more experience and higher education earn more than those with a standard bachelor’s degree and certificate while high school teachers have the highest median salary earning. Many teachers take advantage of the opportunity to increase their income by supervising aer-school programs and other extracurricular activities. It is generally believed that children from high and middle socioeconomic status parent are better exposed to a learning environment at home because of provision and availability for extra learning facilities and attended a private school while children from a very low socioeconomic status family will attend a public school and may not have any opportunity to expose to a better learning environment where teachers are highly motivated. Teachers have the biggest impact on the success and flaws of students` academic performance because their teaching motivations are instrumental in helping them learn and one approach is likely to produce dierent results from another. Teachers` motivation to undertake a task depends on their expected reward. Eicient teaching and moral will take place when there is strong motivation in terms of wages and innovation from both employers, also the students` performance in mathematics sometimes may serve as a motivation for the teachers in other to perform efficient in the subject. This motivation may be aroused by either extrinsic or intrinsic stimuli both of which are important in directing and regulating the learner’s behavior towards attainment of the desired goals. Teachers must therefore be motivated through various ways which may include the organization of seminars and workshops, upgrading test, performance appraisal, timely payment of salary and wage, providing the required physical facilities like laboratories and verbal encouragements for student etc. Motivation covers all the reasons which cause a person to act including the negative ones like fear along with the more positive motives such as money, promotion or recognition (Aldair, 2009). The source of motivation is both intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation occurs when people engage in an activity without external incentives. They get motivated when they can control the amount of eort they put in an activity since they know the results they will get, will not be by luck. Extrinsic motivation has to do with incentives. Incentives are external to a person and are provided by the management in order to encourage workers to perform tasks. Moreover, individual characteristics such as intelligence, cognitive styles, and personality play an important role in learning and instruction as does the context of learning. Other research findings have shown that individual students’ characteristics variables such as motivational orientations, self-esteem and learning approaches are important factors influencing academic achievements. In the eort to improve students’ cognition and affective outcomes in mathematics and school learning, mathematics educators have continued to search for variables (personal and environmental) that could be manipulated in favor of academic gains. Of all the personal and psychological variables that have attracted researchers in this area of educational achievement, motivation seems to be gaining more popularity and leading other variables; Aire & Tella. The issue of motivating learners is seen as an important aspect of effective learning. In fact psychologists believe that motivation is a necessary ingredient for learning; Biehler and Snowman. They believe that satisfactory school learning is unlikely to take place in the absence of sufficient motivation to learn; Fontana. These issues of motivation of students in education and the impact on academic performance are considered as an important aspect of eective learning. However, a learner’s reaction to education determines the extent to which he or she will go in education.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Despite several eorts of the present government and eorts of the several educators to encourage rural schools to improve on their academic performances, like posting trained teachers, providing textbooks to schools and paying teachers‘ salaries, there is still concern that academic performance in secondary schools is generally poor. Usually the student’s academic performance may get improved when the teachers are tuned up to their teaching profession. There are number of things to tune if teachers are to perform among others, teaching facilities should be in place, there should be good teacher’s interpersonal relationships and above all teacher’s motivation should be catered for in all aspects. However, the past years there has been some concern in level secondary schools where by a student‘s academic performance has tremendously declined and the stakeholders has attributed these number of factors:- Many have asserted that teachers‘ motivation is not up to the standards and therefore this has affected students‘ performance. It‘s against this background that the researcher has been motivated to investigate how the teacher’s motivation has affected student‘s academic performance

EFFECT OF TEACHERS MOTIVATION ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT