EFFECT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON WATER QUALITY IN EASTERN OBOLO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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EFFECT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON WATER QUALITY IN EASTERN OBOLO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

 TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT                                                                                   PAGES

Cover page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        i

Title page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        ii

Declaration          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        iii

Certificate   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        iv

Acknowledgment –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        v

Abstract      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        vi

Table of content   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        vii

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION –        –        –        –        –        –   –        1

CHAPTER TWO

  • EFFECT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON WATER QUALITY IN EASTERN OBOLO LOCAL                GOVERNMENT AREA    –        –        –        5
  • Description of the study area          –        –        –        –     –        5
  • Major oil spillage         –        –        –        –        –        –     –        7
  • Causes of oil spillage   –        –        –        –        –        –     –        9
  • Types of oil spillage in Eastern Obolo               –        –     –        14
  • Effect of oil spillage on water quality in Eastern Obolo     –        16
  • Biological effects of Oil spillage on the aquatic environment  of water

–        –        –        –        –        –        –     –        18

  • Sensitivity of water      –        –        –        –        –        –     –        20
  • The importance of quality of water in Eastern Obolo Local Government Area      –        –        –        –        –        –     –        –        –        –        22
  • Circulation and Degradation of water      –        –        –     –        25
  • Evaporation and Degradation of water –        –        –     –        25
  • Emulsification and Degradation of water –        –        –     –        26
  • Chemical oxidation and Degradation of water –        –     –        26
  • Bacterial Degradation of water –        –        –        –     –        26

2.14 WAYS OF MAINTAINING GOOD QUALITY OF WATER      –        27

2.14.1  Flow shut down          –        –        –        –        –        –         –        27

2.14.2  Bio remediation –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        27

2.14.3  Bioremediation of accelerator       –        –        –        –         –        28

2.14.4  Controlled burning     –        –        –        –        –        –         –        28

2.14.5  Dispersant        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        29

2.14.6  Watch and wait –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        29

2.14.7  Solidifying         –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        30

2.14.8  Vacuum and centrifuge        –        –        –        –        –         –        30

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

3.1  Conclusion    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –         –        31

3.2  Recommendation   –        –        –        —      –        –        –         –        32

REFERENCES

 1.0 Introduction

The quality of water is central to all of the roles that water plays in our lives. From the beauty of natural waterways teaming with wildlife, to the vital livelihoods that clean rivers and streams support, to the essential role that safe water plays in drinking and washing.  Good water quality is fundamental to the network of life and livelihood that water supports. Water is the source of life on earth, and human civilizations blossomed where there was reliable and clean freshwater. Use of water by humans – for drinking, washing, and recreation – requires water free from biological, chemical, and physical contamination. Plants, animals and the habitats that support biological diversity also need clean water. Water of a certain quality is needed to grow food, to power cities, and to run industries.

Water contamination weakens or destroys natural ecosystems that support human health, food production, and biodiversity. Studies have estimated that the value of ecosystem services is double the gross national product of the global economy, and the role of freshwater ecosystems in purifying water and assimilating wastes has been valued a lot. Freshwater ecosystems are among the most degraded on the planet, and have suffered proportionately greater species and habitat losses than terrestrial or marine ecosystems. Most polluted freshwater ends up in the oceans, damaging coastal areas and fisheries.

Furthermore, local regional and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects on human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, physiographic characteristics and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities which will in turn modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important uses for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effect of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydro-logic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. An extremely important factor is that substances added to water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or cleanup. The nature of the substances including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance.

Generally, the effect of oil resource extraction on the environment on Niger Delta has been very glaring in terms of its negative impact on the region. One of the major environmental problems in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria since the inception of oil exploration, exploitation, processing and transportation by the multinational oil companies has been that of oil spillage. Oil spills in the Niger Delta region, where Eastern Obolo is located, have caused a diverse depletion of environmental assets and valuables, thereby leading to hardship and poverty among the host communities. Although, there are many sources of environmental damages in the Delta, the major sources of environmental and social degradation are the oil industries. Leaks and spills from old corroded and poorly maintained pipelines occur continuously.

Major oil spills heavily contaminate marine shorelines, causing severe localized ecological damage to the near-shore community of Eastern Obolo. These are caused mainly by the following oil companies: Nigerian National Petroleum Cooperation (NNPC), Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC), Exxon Mobil, Total Elf and Amni International operating on the shores of Eastern Obolo communities. The harmful effects of oil spill on the environment are many. Oil destroys plants and animals in the estuarine zone. It settles on beaches and kills organisms and marine animals like fishes, crabs and other crustaceans. Oil endangers fish hatcheries in coastal waters and as well as contaminates the flesh of commercially valuable fish. Oil poisons algae, disrupts major food chains and decreases the yield of edible crustaceans. Oil on water surface also interferes with gaseous interchange at the sea surface and dissolved oxygen levels will thereby be lowered. This will in no doubt reduce the life span of marine animals. Micro-organisms also degrade petroleum hydrocarbons after spillage (Atlas, 1981; Leahy and Colwell, 1990; Atlas and Bartha, 1992) In a bid to clean oil spills by the use of oil dispersant, serious toxic effects will be exerted on plankton thereby poisoning marine animals. This can further lead to food poisoning and loss of lives. Another effect of oil slicks is loss of economic resources to the government. When spilled, oil is not quickly recovered; it will be dispersed by the combined action of tides, wind and current. The oil will therefore spread into thin films, dissolve in water and undergo photochemical oxidation, which will lead to its decomposition. Oil spill has also destroyed farmlands, polluted ground and drinkable water and caused drawbacks in fishing off the coastal waters. There have been continuous regional crises in the Niger Delta area as a result of oil spill on the coastal ecosystem.

An essay into oil spillage and effect on the water quality will provide information that will help in the elimination and amelioration of the problem, thereby making the environment more conducive for the oil producing communities. The paper will also be beneficial to the community as it will act as a guide in water resources development, academic growth, policy formulation and also aid the municipal water supply agency in the provision of potable water to the community.

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EFFECT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON WATER QUALITY IN EASTERN OBOLO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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