TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vi
Lists of Table viii
Lists of Appendices ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Hypotheses 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 8
1.8 Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework 9
2.2 Conceptual Review 13
2.3 Review of Empirical Studies 22
2.4 Summary of Literature Review 24
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design 26
3.2 Area of the Study 26
3.3 Population of the Study 27
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 27
3.5 Instrumentation 28
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument 28
3.5.2 Reliability of the Instrument(s) 28
3.6 Procedure for Data collection 29
3.7 Method for Data Analysis 29
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Answering the Research Questions 30
4.2 Testing the hypothesis 32
4.3 Summary of Findings 35
4.4 Discussion of Findings 35
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 37
5.2 Educational Implications of the Findings 37
5.3 Conclusion 38
5.4 Recommendation 38
5.5 Suggestions for further Study 39
5.6 Limitations of the study 39
LIST OF TABLE
Table Title Page
1: Summary of mean and Standard Deviation of pretest and posttest scores of students taught the concept of petrochemicals using audiovisual and without audiovisual instructional materials. 31
2: Mean and Standard Deviation scores of the students on pretest and posttest classified by treatment groups and gender 32
3: Mean and Standard Deviation scores of the students on retention-pretest classified by treatment groups and gender 33
4: Independent t-test analysis of posttest scores of students classified by treatment groups 34
5: Analysis of Convariance (ANCOVA) of students post-test scores classified by treatment groups and gender with pretest as covariate 34
6: Summary of Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of student’s retention scores classified by treatment groups and gender with pretest as covariate 35
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix Title Page
A: Letter of Introduction 44
B: Chemistry Performance Test (CPT) on Petrochemicals 45
C: Marking Scheme 49
This study investigated effects of audio-visual aids on student’s academic performance in Chemistry in Senior secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. Three objectives, research questions and hypotheses were raised to give direction to the study. The study adopted quasi-experimental design. One hundred and sixty four (164) SS2 chemistry students for the 2019/2020 academic session took part in the study. Sample was drawn from two intact classes in the study area using purposive sampling technique. Data for the study were collected during teaching-learning process which lasted for six weeks. The instruments used for data collection was Chemistry performance tests with a reliability index of 0.66. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, independent t-test and ANCOVA). The major findings of the study indicated that students taught the concept of petrochemicals using audio-visual aids was more effective than those without audiovisual aids. Also, the study revealed that there was no significant difference between the performance of male and female students taught the concept of petrochemicals using audiovisual and those taught without audiovisual instructional materials. It was similarly discovered from the findings of the study that there is no significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female chemistry students taught the concept of petrochemicals using audiovisual and those taught without audiovisual instructional materials. Hence, the researcher recommended that the government should as a matter of urgency provide schools with audio-visual materials. Furthermore, Chemistry teachers should be sensitized on how to use the materials to facilitate academic performance.
1.1 Background of the Study
The impact of audio-visual resource can be so great in science teaching thus making learning permanent. Audio-Visual aids are important in education system and are those devices which are used in classrooms to encourage teaching learning process and make it easier and interesting. Audio-Visual aids are the best tool for making teaching effective and enhances dissemination of knowledge. Hence, there is no doubt that technical devices have greater impact and dynamic informative system in the process of learning. Gopal (2012) stressed that “audio-visual” methods seem to facilitate the acquisition, the retention and the recall of lessons learned, because, they seem to evoke the maximum response of the whole organism to the situations in which learning is done. And perceptual materials richly associate themselves with the unique experiential stressed that audio-visual materials are important in the teaching and learning processes because “having seen something, most people remember, for whatever that thing was, it conjures up an image at a mere mention and can be talked freely.
Audio-Visual learning aids such as pictures, drawings or dynamic video is often designed to facilitate learning and have a positive effect. From the learning and instruction point of view, the effectiveness of the Audio-Visual information is concerned with cognitive learning and retention. Moreover, the performance criteria of learning materials are mainly focused on comprehension and recall. However, Watson, Aremu and Sokan (2010) state that, the performance criteria should be focused on the effect of the actual action than on the retention if the learning aids real applied to a procedural motor task. Then, when preparing and using Audio-Visual learning aids, teachers should think in terms of how they will promote learning. It is therefore more correct to refer to them as learning aids rather than teaching aids.
Audio-Visual aids are those instructional devices which are used in the classroom to encourage learning and make it easier and interesting. The material like charts, maps, models, film strip, projectors radio, television etc called instructional aids (Rather,2004). Audio-Visual aids are effective tool that invest the past with an air of reality.” Audio-Visual aids provide the learners with realistic experience, which capture their attention and help in the understanding of the historical phenomena. They appeal to the mind through the Audio-Visual auditory senses (Jain, 2004)There is famous Chinese proverb “ one seeing is worth, a hundred words” it is fact that we receive knowledge through our senses. There is another proverb that” if we hear we forget, if we see we remember, and if we do something we know it” so it means that use of audio-visual aids make teaching learning process more effective. As Kishore (2003) said “audio-visual aids stimulated thinking and understand.” The use of Audio-Visual aids in teaching learning process has multifarious values(Mohanty,2001). Audio-Visual aids give chance to speakers to make a more professional and consistent presentation. The teaching profession is filled with countless opportunities to enrich the academic lives of students, while some concepts and educational objectives will be easy for students to grasp, other will require you to think creatively to ensure that important learning objectives are met. Using aids in teaching is one way to enhance lesson plans and give students additional ways to process subject information (Kunari,2006). Audio-Visual aids are devices present unit of knowledge through auditory of Audio-Visual stimuli both with a view to help learning. They concretize the knowledge to be presented and help in making learning experience apple real, living and vital. They supplement the work of the teacher and help in the study of the text books. The great educationist Comenius has well said: The foundation of all learning consists in representing clearly to the senses and sensible objects so they can be appreciated easily (Singh,2005).
Surveys have shown that many teachers in developing countries such as Nigeria stop using Audio-Visual learning aids after leaving college. This is probably because they tend to be involved in extra work and more demanding organizational techniques on the part of the teachers. The utilization of learning aids in instructional process reflects back to ancient periods. This period is characterized by Greeks and Latin people, especially during early 150 BC when people were taught and learned things practically.
For instance boys were taught hunting wild animals such as an elephant by using spears and arrows, while girls were taught on how to prepare food. Apart from that, parents taught their children about the world location by using local maps drawn on the ground, and religion was taught by using pictures drawn on the walls and caves. All these give us the picture on how the Audio-Visual learning aids influence the process of instruction in Secondary Schools. Any kind of an instruction whether in public schools, private schools or informal education is an existing activity which is in need of enhancement of educational atmosphere particularly Audio-Visual learning aids (Anderson, 2009).
Public secondary schools started in America during 19thc. It was the first nation which advocated public supported schools which believed that; the American people had a responsibility to acquire quality education in order to achieve desired basic democratic goals such as to improve social condition, to promote cultural unity, eradication of inequalities in education and ensuring basic level of quality among schools. This situation enabled the society and community as a whole to live peacefully and in harmony (Barr 2004).
In Nigeria, public secondary schools were introduced after independence in 1964 in order to implement the curriculum reform about education for all (EFA). The purpose of this education policy was to let many students to access primary and secondary education. Due to this education expansionism policy, many challenges occurred, including inadequacy of learning aids. For example, in 1961 the number of students in public secondary schools were 11,832, but in the year 1967, the number increased to 25,000, therefore, this is an evidence of the increase of public secondary schools (Nyerere, 1968). But EFA policy was not well implemented. This was revealed when the government failed to finance human and physical resources, hence the program ended up with negative outcomes, such as, shortage of buildings, incompetent teachers and inadequate teaching and learning materials. Urban secondary schools receive more resources than those in rural areas and the occurrences of such situation lead to the difference on students’ academic performance. The clear use of learning Audio-Visual aids such as posters, wall painting, flash card, pie chart, let the students remember the facts and altitudes for longer and more clearly (Altschul, 2011). Despite the necessity of using Audio-Visual aids, different threats hinder the application and availability of such aids. The government of Nigeria through the Ministry of Education (MOE), does not ensure availability of the Audio-Visual learning aids, therefore some are not there and due to the aforementioned issue of non-availability, the preparing and using of learning Audio-Visual aids therefore becomes inadequate thereby leading to schools providing low quality academic services which in-turn result in the poor academic performance of students.
Using of Audio-Visual learning aids on teaching has proved to be effective in the learning outcomes. But public secondary schools in Nigeria are faced with multitude of problems which contribute to poor performance in national examinations. Therefore, this study sought to examine whether use or non-use of Audio-Visual learning aids had any significant effect on the academic performance of secondary schools students in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Data from existing literature shows that audio-visual learning aids have impacts on students’ overall academic performance. Adeyemo (2011) reiterate that the utilization of instructional materials such as audio-visual learning aids make students participate effectively in the learning process, hence ending with quality education that enable them to suit in the current society in relation to technological changes. Rasul, Bukhsh and Batoo (2011) reports that audio-visual aids play important role in teaching and learning process. Aids make teaching and learning process effective, aids provide knowledge in depth and detail and they bring change in class room environment. Mathew and Alidmat (2013) concluded that aids are often viewed to be an inspiration and provide motivation in classroom instruction and that effective use of audio-visual aids substitutes monotonous learning environments.
From the foregoing, it is empirically agreed that audio-visual learning aids assist in the learning process and students find it easy to grasp the materials in classroom when Audio-Visual learning aids are used. However, the use or non-use of learning this Audio-Visual aids happens not to be the only problem in public secondary schools in Nigeria; materials shortages, motivational inadequacy and poor learning environment are some of the problems plaguing the effective use of the resource. The relationship between usage and non-usage of Audio-Visual learning aids and students’ academic performance in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area have not so far been established amongst several other problems. Hence, The objective of this study is to examine to what extent use and non-use of Audio-Visual teaching aids affects the students’ academic performance in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of audio-visual instructional material and student’s academic performance in the concept of petrochemicals. Specifically, the study sought to;
Determine the effects of audio-visual instructional material and students’ academic performance in the concept of petrochemicals
Assess the influence of gender (male and female) on students’ academic performance in the concept of petrochemicals when taught using audio-visual and those taught without audio-visual instructional material.
Determine the effects of audio-visual instructional material on student’s retention in the concept of petrochemicals.