TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE
TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL PAGE ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 13
Purpose of the Study 14
Significance of the Study 16
Research Questions 19
Scope of the Study 21
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 23
Conceptual Framework 24
- Marketing 24
- Teaching Method and Techniques 40
- Dialogic Instructional Technique 46
- Guided Discovery Instructional Technique 52
- Academic Achievement 68
- Students’ Interest in Learning 71
- Retention of Learning 74
Theoretical Framework 76
- McClelland Theory of Achievement Motivation 76
- Bandura’s Social Learning Theory 78
- Skinner’s Operant conditioning 80
Related Empirical Studies 82
- Effects of Dialogic Instructional Technique on Students Achievement,Interest and Retention 82
- Effects of Guided Discovery Instructional Technique on Students Achievement, Interest and Retention 89
Summary of Literature Reviewed 100
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 103
Design of the Study 103
Area of the Study 104
Population for the Study 105
Sample and Sampling Technique 105
Instrument for Data Collection 106
Validation of the Instrument 107
Reliability of the Instrument 108
Experimental Procedure 108
Control of Extraneous Variables 109
Method of Data Collection 110
Method of Data Analysis 111
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 112
Presentation of Analysed Data
Findings of the Study 128
Discussion of the Findings 131
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION 138
Re-statement of the Problem 138
Summary of Procedure Used 141
Major Findings of the Study 143
Implications of the Findings 145
Limitations of the Study 148
Suggestions for Further Study 150
Appendix A: Summary of WAEC Results in Marketing 165
Appendix B: Population for the Study 166 Appendix C: Table of Specification for Marketing Achievement Test 167
Appendix D: Request for Validation of Research Instrument 168
Appendix E: Marking Scheme for Pre-Test for Marketing AchievementTest (MAT) 177
Appendix F: Marketing Interest Inventory (MII) 179
Appendix G: Training Manual for the Teaching Techniques 181
Appendix H: Instructional Techniques Lesson Plans 187
Appendix I: Reliability Result of the Marketing Achievement Test (MAT) 287
Appendix J: Reliability Result of the Marketing Interest Inventory (MII) 288
Appendix K: Results of Data Analysis 289
LIST OF TABLES PAGE
Table 1: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Achievement Scores of StudentsExposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and LectureMethods in Warehousing Test. 112
Table 2: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Achievement Scores of Students Exposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture
Methods in Structure and Market Union for Sales of Goods Test 113
Table 3: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Achievement Scores of Students Exposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture Methods in Roles of Facilitators Test. 114
Table 4: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Interest Rating Scores of Students Exposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture Methods in Warehousing Interest Inventory 115
Table 5: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Interest Rating Scores of Students Exposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture Methods in Structure and Market Union Interest Inventory. 116
Table 6: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Interest Rating Scores of Students Exposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture Methods in Roles of Facilitators Interest Inventory. 117
Table 7: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Retention Scores of Students Exposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture Methods in Warehousing Retention of Learning 118
Table 8: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Retention Scores of Students Exposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture Methods in Structure and Market Union Retention Test 119
Table 9: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Retention Scores of Students Exposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture Methods in Roles of Facilitators Retention Test 120
Table 10: Summary of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) for test of Significance in the Mean Achievement Scores of Students and Effects of Treatments (Groups) Based on the topics. 121
Table 11: Summary of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) for test of Significance in the Mean Interest Scores of Students and Effects of Treatments (Groups) Based on the Topics in Marketing. 125
Table 12: Summary of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) for test of Significance in the Mean Retention Scores of Students and Effects of Treatments (Groups) Based on the topics. 127
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Study 76
This study investigated the effects of
dialogic and guided discovery instructional techniques on students’
achievement, interest and retention in marketing in senior secondary schools in
Delta State. Specifically, Warehousing, Structure and market union for the sale
of goods and Roles of facilitators were the Marketing components examined. Nine
research questions and nine null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.
The study was carried out using quasi-experimental research design. The
population for this study comprised all the 9,194 SS11 students of the 145
public co-educational secondary schools offering marketing in Delta State.
Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select six out of the 145
public senior secondary schools with a total of 307 SS II students offering
marketing, which were used for the study. Through balloting, West-end Mixed
Secondary School and Zappa Mixed Secondary School were allotted to dialogic
technique; Abraka Grammar School and Urhoka Grammar School were allotted to
guided discovery technique while Obiaruku Grammar School and Afor Secondary
School were allotted to lecture method. The data for the study were cololected
using two sets of instruments which are: Marketing Achievement Test (MAT) and
Marketing Interest Inventory (MII). The two sets of the instruments were
subjected to both face and content validation by five experts. The reliability
of the Marketing Achievement Test (MAT) was achieved using Kuder Richardson 21
(KR-21) which yielded a co-efficient of 0.74 while the reliability of the
Marketing Interest Inventory (MII) was achieved using Cronbach Alpha
reliability technique which yielded a coefficient of 0.82. The data collected
were analysed using mean and standard deviation for answering the research
questions while the hypotheses formulated for the study were tested using
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. The results of
the study showed that dialogic and guided discovery instructional techniques significantly
increased students’ academic achievement, interest and retention of learning in
Marketing (warehousing, structure and market union and roles of facilitators)
in secondary schools in Delta State. Based on the findings of this study, the study
recommended among others, that: secondary school teachers of Marketing should
be provided with in-service training for teaching skill update in the use of
modern and student-centred instructional techniques such as dialogic and guided
discovery instruction and that instructional materials to facilitate quality
teaching and learning with the modern teaching techniques should be provided by
the government and school administrators.
Background of the Study
Students preparing for success and eventual leadership in the new global market place is the most important responsibility in 7education today. The school is expected to provide the students with the cherished skills, abilities and competencies that can make them self reliant and highly productive in the society. One of the cardinal aims of education in Nigeria as spelt out in the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2014) is “the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies both mental and physical as equipment for individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society. Thus, marketing as a vocational subject is deemed suitable for the attainment of the National goals of education in Nigeria. This is due to the fact that, the curriculum of secondary school marketing is designed to equip the individuals with appropriate skills, abilities and competencies as equipment for individuals to live and contribute to the development of the society (Yesuf and Raphael 2010).
These skills, abilities and competencies acquired through the curriculum will help the individual to understand the economic situation of its nation and that will influence his present and future standard of living. In support of this assertion, Obi (2011), elluded that, in order to be a good member of the society, the individual should have a sound grasp of the functions of business in the economic system as well as acquire the ability to use the services of business. Some elements of business knowledge, skills, abilities, values and competencies that will equip individuals to be self-reliant are found in marketing syllabus in secondary schools.
Secondary school is the form of education immediately after elementary or primary education. According to Brickman (2009), a child starts secondary school at about the age of 11 and continues for about six years. It is an intermediate education between elementary education and tertiary education. Ekundayo (2010), stated that the broad objective of secondary education include the preparation for useful living within the society and for higher education.
The detailed objectives of secondary school as stated in the National Policy on Education (2014) among others include: providing trained manpower in the applied sciences, technology and commerce at sub-professional grades; inspiring students with the desire for self-improvement and achievement of excellence as well as to good citizens and providing technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, individual, commercial and economic development. In Nigeria education system, secondary education is divided into stages: the junior and senior secondary education (Mgbodile, 2000). The junior secondary education is both pre-vocational and academic in scope. Most subjects at this stage as contained in the National Policy on Education are compulsory. At the senior secondary school level, subjects are grouped into three areas, which are: core subject (English, mathematics and civic education), vocational electives (marketing, home economics, accounting, metal work etc) and non-vocational electives (history, geography, chemistry, biology etc) (Federal Government of Nigeria 2014). According to Delta State Ministry of Basic and Secondary Education (2013), one of the vocational elective subjects newly introduced at senior secondary school level by the federal government is marketing.
Marketing is a diverse and exciting field of study with real practical application to the world we live and work in. Marketing involves the process by which a product or service originates and is then priced, promoted, and distributed to consumers (Robbs, 2009). Thus, Kotler and Keller (2012), view marketing as an organisational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefits the organisation and its stakeholders. The American Marketing Association (2005) provided a comprehensive definition of marketing as a process that deals with set of activities, institutions and processes for creating, communicating, delivering and exchanging goods and services that have value for customers, clients, partners and society at large. In affirmation, Kotler in Nwalado and Oru (2016), submitted that marketing encompasses all activities that deal with getting the right goods and services to the right people, at the right place, at the right time, at the right price, with the right communication and promotion to effect change. The exchange in marketing process could be made through the use of transfers or through electronic means. According to Obi (2011), marketing is the performance of business activities that direct products and services from producers to consumers or users to satisfy customer’s demand and accomplish the company’s objectives. Obi further stated that marketing consist of all large number of business activities which include gathering of products, information, designing and developing, packaging, transportation, advertising and selling of goods and services.
As an academic subject, the study of marketing is essential to every nation. This is because; marketing is the life wire of every business (Eboiyehi, Ikejiofor and Nwachokor, 2009). To foster the effective teaching and learning of marketing, Robbs (2009), highlighted activities taught in marketing to include planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the decision-making regarding product lines, pricing, promotion, and servicing. The teaching of marketing provides learners with systematic training and instruction leading to the acquisition of knowledge concerning the theory and practice of marketing.
Marketing in this study, is seen as a process of planning, organizing, creating and executing business activities by delivering values to customers and maintaining customers relationship through the exchange of products and services. Marketing is a specific field that is programmed to train students on business skills, abilities and competencies that will enable them function effectively in the world of work and in future. The objectives of teaching marketing in Nigerian secondary schools as reported by the National Board for Technical Education (2001) include: production of middle level management personnel with relevant knowledge for the solution of marketing problems in business and commerce, provision of training necessary for the acquisition of skills to individuals who shall be self-reliant economically, provision of training necessary to conduct product planning for manufacturing, organization, and provision of training necessary to organize sales and distribution of goods and services. The marketing components discussed in this study include: warehousing, structure and market union for the sale of goods and roles of facilitator. These components were considered appropriate because they are the topics in the third term scheme of SS II marketing syllabus.
The first component discussed in this study, is warehousing. Warehousing is the act of storing goods (raw materials and finished goods) in a place until they are needed. It ensures that there is regular and steady supply of goods whenever the need arises. A Warehouse according to Hansen and Gibson (2010), is a commercial building for storage of goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, importers, wholesalers, transport businesses and customs among others for storage of goods and services. They are usually large plain building in industrial areas of cities, towns and villages. The functions of a warehouse include; storage of goods, price stabilization, checking of smuggled goods, promotion of economic growth, generation of revenue and encouragement of long-term production plan.
Another component of marketing discussed in this study, is structure and market union for the sale of goods. The market structure is best defined as the organization of the market and any other characteristics of a market. According to Emele and Emele (2006), the market structure has different characteristics which include: the number of firms in the market, the market share of the largest firms, the degree of vertical integration of the industry, the extent of product differentials, the organization of buyers in the industry and turnover of customers. The structure of the market is designed by market unions. Market union is the association of business men and women who come together with the aim of achieving a common goal. They are committed to the coordination and protection of their members at all times. The activities of the market union among others as outlined by Eyiyere (2006), Okoye (2007) and Anyaele (2008) include: fighting for the right of members, protest against unfair treatment towards their members, demand for production of quality goods and services, support the government for smooth running of the economy, protest against unfavourable government policy, discipline of erring members and enlighten the public on matters of common interest among others.
The third component discussed in this study, is roles of facilitator. Marketing functions require significant expertise, and it is good for organizations to use the assistance of experts to facilitate their business. A facilitator is someone who helps a group of people understand their common objectives and assist them to plan how to achieve these objectives. In order to help these people achieve their objectives, the facilitator remains “neutral”, meaning that the facilitator does not take particular position/side in the business discussion of the group. According to Babalola (2015), facilitators perform the following roles among others: intervention, encouraging objectivity among members, helping members to understand their respective learning process, helping organization in the formation and administration of rules and regulations.
The facilitators should be flexible and dynamic by allowing group members to err their views and carefully intervene when necessary. The achievement of the above components would depend on the effective teaching and learning of marketing in senior secondary schools in Nigeria. The quality of instruction received by the students depends upon the knowledge of the teacher. Robbs (2009), stated that there is a strong positive relationship between teacher’s knowledge of subject and levels of subject knowledge achieved by their students. For any subject to be effectively taught, there should be trained and qualified teachers. For the study of marketing to be appreciated by the students, the teacher has to map out instructional techniques that will help arouse the interest of the students for excellent academic achievement.
Unfortunately, the general performance of students in West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) in marketing in senior secondary schools in Delta State, as observed by the researcher in the past three years is not encouraging. The poor performance may be as a result of low interest in the subject. A close look at the students enrollment and performance in WAEC in marketing in senior secondary schools in Delta State shows that the enrollment level of students is low and their performances are poor (See Appendix A, page 165).
The continuous poor performance of students in marketing appears to be as a result of lack of interest in the subject due to the constant use of conventional teaching method by most marketing teachers. The low interest exhibited by the students in the subject could be linked to ineffective teaching. Conventional method of teaching such as lecture method had been widely criticized by scholars. For instance, Akinbola (2009) noted that the continuous use of conventional teaching method is responsible for students’ poor achievement. According to Oranu (2003), the conventional teaching methods such as lecture and demonstration are regarded as content driven and certainly not learner-centred and in most cases lower learners interest in particular subject.
Conventional teaching methods are teacher-centred rather than students-centred and are predominantly used for instructional delivery in Nigeria schools including secondary schools. In affirmation, Okon (2002) supported that conventional teaching methods relative to modern instructional techniques are not challenging enough to the academic needs of the students. Therefore, Barnstein (2006), stated that modern instructional techniques are more effective and interactive, emphasizing small group work using relevant and practical case studies. According to Onwuegbu (2009), there is no one instructional technique termed as best for all subject or content. Learning can be enhanced by adopting different modern techniques and approaches according to the need of the content. Quite a number of modern instructional techniques have been documented as being efficacious in enhancing students’ achievement, attitude and interest towards learning. These among others include: Computer assisted instruction, Peer tutoring, Constructivist instructional technique, role playing, modelling, metal learning, coaching, dialogic teaching, and guided discovery instructional techniques. This study will however investigate the effects of dialogic and guided discovery instructional technique on students’ achievement, interest and retention in marketing.
Dialogic teaching for instance has been the subject of increasing discussion in the last few years and a number of authors suggested that teaching through dialogue holds the greatest cognitive potential for learners (Nystrand, Woodman and Mark, in Nwalado and Oru, 2016). Dialogic instructional technique entails the teacher setting goal to be achieved, asking relevant questions on how the goal or task is to be achieved; students give their opinion or views on how the task is to be achieved. Alexander (2006) described dialogic teaching technique as teacher‐class, teacher‐group, teacher‐individual, or pupil‐pupil instructional technique for achieving common understanding through structured, cumulative questioning and discussion which guide and prompt, reduce choices, minimize risks, and errors, and expedite handover of information from teachers to the students. Sharing their views, Staarman and Ametller (2013) noted that dialogic teaching involves ongoing talk between the teacher and students, not just teacher-presentation. Dialogic technique in this study is a teaching technique that requires the interaction between teacher and students, teacher and individuals or students and students, where students ask questions, share ideas and handover information from teachers to the students and among students themselves. It is a student centred instructional technique where students are allowed to participate in classroom interactions, ask questions, explain and share ideas with one another within and outside the classroom.
In dialogic teaching, UNESCO (2015) stated that, the ideas, views or opinions of both the teachers and students are shared and agreement is reached. Alexander (2006) noted that dialogic teaching nurtures students’ independence, responsibility, engagement and confidence. In general terms, Sami (2013) viewed dialogic interaction as instructional situation where students ask questions, comment on ideas that emerge in lessons, explain and state points of view, and are given more time for thinking. Students need the support of the teacher who, in turn, must be sensitive to students’ initiatives and able to provide continuity and ensure reciprocity. Through dialogue, therefore, the teachers can elicit students’ common sense and perspectives about an issue, engage students’ developing ideas and help them overcome misunderstandings or misconceptions of ideas during classroom instruction (Staarman and Ametller, 2013). Apart from dialogic teaching, another student-centred instructional technique of interest in this study is guided discovery instructional technique.
Guided discovery instructional technique is a student-centred approach which increases the degree of student’s interest, confidence, innovativeness, problem solving ability, creativity and consequently improves their performance in both theory and practice (UNESCO, 2015). According to Audu (2007), guided discovery technique involves an unstructured exploration in some problem solving experience in which the student can draw general conclusions from data which he has gathered through various mental and physical processes such as observing, measuring, classifying, inferring, predicting, communicating, describing and formulating relevant questions. Guided discovery instructional technique, in the opinion of Sharma (2014), is a resource based learning which is an innovation that reverses the usual role of the teacher from that in which he is the main authority and source of all knowledge to one in which he acts simply as a guide to the students to enable them to make use of other sources of information. This implies that guided discovery is student-centred learning technique that put the interest of the students first. Guided discovery instructional techniques in this work is a student centred, activity-oriented teaching that promote active and cooperative learning of students. It is a process in which the teacher guides the students through problem solving approach to discover answers to instructional content at hand.
Under guided discovery instructional technique, the teacher is more interested in the creative ability of the learner (Fatokun and Yalams, 2007). According to Bruner in Gbamanya (2002), guided discovery occurs when the teacher guides a learner in using his mental processes to mediate (discover) some concept or principle. In this case, the learner is guided to discover the concepts and principles that are involved in problem solving activities. In relation to this study therefore, dialogic and guided discovery instructional techniques are interactive, stimulating, modern and students-centred teaching techniques that can be adopted by teachers for enhancing secondary school students’ academic achievement, interest and retention in marketing.
Academic achievement is the learning outcome of the students which can be measured by any form of assessment technique to ascertain academic gain of the students. According to Epunam in Akinbobola (2006), academic achievement is the learning outcomes of the students which include the knowledge, skills and ideas acquired and retained through the course of study within and outside the classroom situations. Similarly, Akinbobola (2006) defined students’ academic achievement as learning outcomes of students which include the knowledge, the skill and experiences acquired in both classroom and laboratory practices. Academic achievement of students is the translation of the students’ performance in achievement test into scores obtained in a cognitive test. In the view of Anene (2005), academic achievement is quantified by measuring students’ academic standing in relation to those of other students tested with the same instrument. Literature evident in UNESCO (2015) suggested that, factors such as students’ interest in learning has positive correlation with academic achievement.
Interest has been viewed as emotionally oriented behavioural change which determines a student’s vim and vigour in tackling educational programme or other activities (Chukwu, 2002). Students’ interest and achievement in any learning activity is sustained by the active involvement of the learners in all aspects of the learning. Ogwo and Oranu (2006) noted that unless the teacher stimulates students’ interest in learning, their achievement and retention will be minimal. Therefore, it is imperative to state that the instructional techniques utilized by teachers for instructional delivery will not only influence students’ achievement and interest but also influence their retention of learning on completion of classroom instruction.
The teacher is expected to use instructional techniques that will require students participation which will enhance their retention level. Retention of learning, according to Momoh-olle in Hayine (2003) is the repeat performance of a skill earlier acquired, elicited after an interval of time. Retention is the preservative factor of the mind (Kundu and Totoo, 2007). Whatever touches consciousness leaves trace or impression and is retained in the mind inform of image. Boyle and Dunleavy (2003) established that students’ achievement, interest and retention in learning can be influenced by factors such as teachers’ ability, motivation, interest, meaningfulness of subject matter, techniques of instruction and learners’ memory capacity.
With particular reference to teaching and learning situation, Wasagu and Mohammad (2007) observed that different results and views of researchers in studies of different subjects showed that students perform differently as a result of cultural, traditional and instructional reasons. If the poor achievement and interest of students in marketing is as a result of the adherence of the teachers to the use of conventional teaching techniques among other factors, then modern teaching techniques such as dialogic and guided discovery instructional techniques could be employed to see their possible effects on the academic achievement, interest and retention of students in the subject. It is based on this background that this experimental study was conducted to ascertain the effects of dialogic and guided discovery instructional techniques on students’ achievement, interest and retention in marketing in senior secondary schools in Delta State.
Statement of the Problem