EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS IN THE UTILISATION OF IMMUNISATION SERVICES
1.1 Background of the study
In 1979 Nigeria’s Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) was initiated, and was placed within the Department of Public Health and Communicable Disease 1 Control of the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) . It was re-launched in 1984 due 2 to poor coverage. In 1996 it became the National Programme on Immunisation (NPI), launched by the then First Lady, Mrs Abacha. Following a review of EPI, Decree 12 of 1997 created NPI as a parastatal. NPI has a sole responsibility of supervising and 2 enhancing routine and supplemental immunisations in Nigeria. Routine immunisation (RI) is provided largely through the public health system, with significant variations between the 36 States and Federal Capital Territory (FCT); 3 private or NGO providers are the source of up to one-third of RI in Anambra state. Public sector provision is by health staff based at facilities run by the 21 Local Government Areas (LGAs) who have a Primary Health Care Coordinator (PHCC), a Local Immunisation Officer and a Cold Chain Officer. These staff members are under the control of the Head of Local Govt Administration and are employees of the State Government (Ministry of Local Government and Local Government Service Commission). Routine immunisations are done at the fixed posts in the health centres, health posts, General hospitals and tertiary health facilities in the State. Supplemental immunisations in the State are aimed at boosting the immunisation coverage and 2 2 mopping up missed opportunities. It also becomes imperative in epidemics. These supplemental immunisations are achieved through National Immunisation Days (NIDs), Local Immunisation Days (LIDs), Immunisation Plus Days (IPDs) and Child 2 Health Week.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Since they were first introduced in 1956, immunization activities in Nigeria have been 1 characterised by intermittent successes and failures. The expanded programme on immunisation (EPI) introduced in 1979 with the aim of providing immunisation services to children aged 0 – 23 months, experienced some initial success.