ENHANCING PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH IMPROVED WORK ATTITUDE (A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM STATE CIVIL SERVICE)

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ABSTRACT
This research work focused on Enhancing productivity through improved work attitude. To achieve the research objectives, the study made use of survey research design. Convenience sampling technique was used to select fifty (50) respondents as sample size for the study. The instrument of data collection was a self-developed questionnaire and the forms were personally administered. Hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and the data were analyzed using chi-square statistical tool. The findings from the study revealed that the workers attitudes that affect the productivity of organizations negatively include: lateness and absenteeism. In addition, findings revealed that the factors that affect workers attitude towards work include: dispositional influences/personality traits of workers and work environment influences. The study also revealed that the ways of enhancing the attitude of workers towards work for improved productivity include: employee involvement/engagement and developing the human capital. Finally, findings revealed that the need for managing workers attitude in organizations for improved productivity are increasing production level, maximization of production resources and generation of increased profits. Useful recommendations were also offered such as: management should always involve employees in their decision making and the employees should be developed through training and development programmes focused on moulding their attitude towards work, positively.

LIST OF TABLES
CONTENT Page
Table 3.1: Sample Selection – – – – – 27
Table 4.1.1: Responses to research question one – 31
Table 4.1.2: Responses to research question two – 33
Table 4.1.3: Responses to research question three- 34
Table 4.1.4: Responses to research question four- 36
Table 4.2.1 A: Observed frequency table for
hypothesis one – – – – – 38
Table 4.2.1 B: Expected frequency table for
hypothesis one – – – – – 39
Table 4.2.1 C: Comparison of observed with
expected frequencies for hypothesis one- 39
Table 4.2.2 A: Observed frequency table for
hypothesis two – – – – – 40
Table 4.2.2 B: Expected frequency table for
hypothesis two – – – – – 41
Table 4.2.2 C: Comparison of observed with expected
frequencies for hypothesis two- 41
Table 4.2.3 A: Observed frequency table for
hypothesis three – – – – – – 43

Table 4.2.3 B: Expected frequency table for
hypothesis three – – – – – 44
Table 4.2.3 C: Comparison of observed with expected
frequencies for hypothesis three – 44
Table 4.2.4 A: Observed frequency table for
hypothesis four – – – – 46
Table 4.2.4 B: Expected frequency table for hypothesis
Four – – – – – – – 46
Table 4.2.4 C: Comparison of observed with expected
frequencies for hypothesis four – 47

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Title page – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – v-vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – vii
List of tables – – – – – – – viii-ix
Table of Contents – – – – – – x-xii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – 1-4
1.2 Statement of Problem – – – – 4-5
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – 5
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – 5-6
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis – – – – 6-7
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – 7-8
1.7 Scope of the Study – – – – – 8
1.8 Limitations of the Study – – – – 8-9
1.9 Organization of the Study – – – 9-10
1.10 Definition of Terms – – – – – 10
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Preamble – – – – – – – 11
2.1 The Concept of Productivity in Business
Organizations – – – – – – 11-13
2.2 The Need for Productivity in Business
Organizations – – – – – – 13-14
2.3 The Concept of Work Attitude of Employees 15-16
2.4 Factors that affect Workers Attitude towards
Work – – – – – – – – 17-21
2.5 Ways of Enhancing the Attitude of Workers
towards Work for Improve Productivity – 21-25

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Preamble – – – – – – – – 26
3.1 Research Design – – – – – 26
3.2 Population of the Study – – – – 27
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique – – 27
3.4 Instrumentation – – – – – 27-28
3.5 Plan for Data Analysis – – – – 28-29
3.6 Problems of Data Collection – – – 30

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION

4.1 Analysis of Research Questions- – – 31
4.1.1 Research Question One – – – – 31-32
4.1.2 Research Question Two – – – – 33-34
4.1.3 Research Question Three – – – – 34-35
4.1.4 Research Question Four – – – – 36-37
4.2 Test of Hypothesis – – – – – 37
4.2.1 Hypotheses One – – – – – 37-39
4.2.2 Hypotheses Two – – – – – 40-43
4.2.3 Hypotheses Three – – – – – 42-45
4.2.4 Hypotheses Four – – – – – 45-47
4.3 Discussion of Findings – – – – 48-50

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Preamble – – – – – – – – 51
5.1 Summary of Findings- – – – – 51-52
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – 52-53
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – 53
References
Appendix I
Appendix II

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
Employees play a vital role in organizations’ productivity. It can, therefore be said that a developing country like Nigeria, with its abundant human resources and with the required financial support can also experience such economic success if the apt consideration is given to employee attitudes towards work in order to achieve productivity in organizations. Attitudes exhibited by employees can directly affect the atmosphere and productivity within organizations. An environment that is professional and conducive for work needs to be created by an employer in order to keep employees motivated. If this environment is created, the employees are likely to work hard and successfully complete each assignment as expected of them. An attitude is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour (Eagly and Chaiken 1998).
Attitude describes the way an employee feels inside. These are an employee‘s feelings toward his employer, his co-workers and his position within the organization. All employees have attitudes toward their working environment.
There are different types of employee attitudes that affect productivity in organizations which include job satisfaction, employee engagement, organizational commitment, employee theft, employee absenteeism, and employee lateness. Allen and Meyer (1990) defined organizational commitment as employees‘ mind condition to organizations comprising three dimensions (i.e., affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment). Organizational commitment is the good relationship making employees devoted to organizational mission in order to support and make the organization better (Steers and Porter 1983).
According to Valez (1972), job satisfaction has two major components of intrinsic job satisfaction (level of satisfaction with features associated with the job itself) and extrinsic job satisfaction (level of satisfaction with various features associated with the environment). Williams and Hazer (1986) stated that job satisfaction is associated with aspects of work environment and would develop more quickly than organizational commitment. Job satisfaction is an immediate antecedent of intention to leave the workplace and turnover. Unsatisfied workers will leave their jobs more than their satisfied colleagues (Martin 1990). According to Fogarty (1994), job satisfaction refers to the extent to which employees gain enjoyment from their efforts in the workplace.
Additionally, Kahn (1990) stated that employee engagement is ―the harnessing of organization members‘ selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances‖. The cognitive aspect of employee engagement concerns employees‘ beliefs about the organization, its leaders and working conditions. The emotional aspect concerns how employees feel and whether they have positive or negative attitudes toward the organization and its leaders. The physical aspect of employee engagement concerns the physical energies exerted by individuals to accomplish their roles. Thus, according to Kahn (1990), engagement means to be psychologically as well as physically present when occupying and performing an organizational role. With the increasing speed and scale of change in organizations, managers are constantly seeking ways to generate employees‘ commitment, which translates to the competitive advantage and the work attitudes such as job satisfaction, performance, absenteeism, and turnover intentions (Lok and Crawford 2001). When an employee feels good about the work he does and feels as though the work is essentially valued, he can feel a positive drive to complete work on time and to the best of his ability. In contrast, when employees are not satisfied, committed and engaged in their work may develop negative attitudes like lateness, absenteeism and theft which have adverse effects on an employee’s productivity. Additionally, an employee’s negative attitude can become obvious with other actions, such as poor performance, absenteeism, pilfering, tardiness and poor business ethics. On the other hand, employees who feel respected by you and other co-workers, and those who uphold a good attitude, usually respond in a different way and display apt behaviour in the workplace.
Organizations therefore need to find ways to manage their employees‘ attitude so that positive attitudes can be exhibited by employees in order to increase productivity.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The attitude of employees affects their productivity in many ways and often without the consciousness of the employees themselves. While job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee engagement usually lead to increased productivity, negative attitudes like absenteeism, lateness and theft can have the opposite effect. Akwa Ibom state civil service is one such organizations whose productivity is affected by employees‘ attitude since its establishment. The employees of the organization exhibit attitudes like job satisfaction, organizational commitment, employee engagement, lateness, absenteeism and theft which lead to either high or low productivity. However, for some years now it appears employees attitude has not been managed well in Akwa Ibom state civil service. In the absence of effective employees‘ attitude management programmes by the Management of Akwa Ibom state civil service has created the reduction of job satisfaction, employee engagement and organizational commitment. Employees who are not satisfied, committed and engaged in their work are difficult to work with. They are like mosquitoes that suck the blood of their victims. That is, they hinder the creation of positive ideas and infect their co-workers with their bad attitudes. An individual in a working team who repetitively displays negativity or complains about everything prevents other employees to share ideas that could have positive influences on work and productivity. This is believed to have led to low productivity in the organization. The study was therefore to explore employee attitude and productivity.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
To identify worker attitudes that affects the productivity of organizations negatively.

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