This project aimed at finding out the Environmental Health Implications of Waste Generated in Abattoirs- A Case Study of Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Questionnaire, personal observations, oral interview and labouratory analysis were used to collect the data. Water samples were taken from the selected area to assess the level of PH, BOD, Colour, Test, and Odour. Out of the total number of households which is 3418, 358 were randomly chosen to obtain their views. Based on their responses, it is observed that the water of the selected abattoirs is significantly polluted by abattoir effluents. The result is further supported by labouratory analysis which is then compared with FEPA acceptable
limit. The labouratory results revealed that the various samples were contaminated with E.Coli and other enteric bacteria which pollute the water biologically beyond permissible limits. The presence of coliform staphylococcus aurens was confirmed in the water to an extent that it may be injurious to human health. The presence of various form of bacteria which cause Anthrax, Q-fever, Campylobacteriosis, Ornithosis, Botulism, Staph, Salmonellosis, Brucellosis are confirmed. These pose a serious public health problem. Therefore, the following recommendations were made: Enforcement of existing health and hygiene regulations guiding abattoir operation; provision of adequate wastes disposal facilities to cater for both solid and liquid waste; and also the provision of modern abattoir.
1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
The slaughtering of animals for community consumption is inevitable in most nations of the world and dates back to antiquity. The existence of public abattoirs has been traced to the 15th and 16th centuries, in Italy and France, where slaughter houses were among the public facilities provided by the State (Edwards et al., 1979). In Italy, a law of 1890 required that public abattoirs be provided in all communities of more than six thousand inhabitants. Similar public abattoirs were established in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands and Romania in the late 18th century (Jode, et al., 1906). Edwards et al., (1979) state that in Nigeria, nearly every town and neighbourhood is provided with a slaughter house or slaughter slab. They further observe that abattoirs may be situated in urban, rural and nominated industrial sites, and that each has advantages and disadvantages.
The manufacturing of animal products for human consumption (meat and dairy products) or for other human needs (leather), leads inevitably to the production of waste. In the sanitation of environment, waste management has been identified as the most important environmental challenge. It is a problem which must be discussed in every community because the success of any sanitary measures introduced will depend to a large extent on the efficiency to which it is solved (Shuval, 1972)
Waste management as defined by Veterinary Dictionary (2014) defines as the systematic administrations of activities provided for the collection, transportation and processing of wastes. Proper waste management is a desirable asset for human health and it recognizes the need for each individual to participate in the improvement of wastes management, because poor waste management contribute
to contamination of the environment and pollution (liquid, gaseous, solid), spread of insects like mosquitoes, flies and many other vectors and pathogens of infections. All these can be easily controlled and prevented through a proper waste management.
The slaughtering of animals results in meat supply and other useful by-products such as hide and skin. Livestock waste spills can introduce enteric pathogens and excess nutrients into surface water and can contaminate ground water. Abattoirs operations produce a variety of highly organic waste with relatively high level of suspended liquid and solid waste. The liquid wastes are mostly composed of dissolved solid, blood, gut contents urine and water. While the solid waste are usually condemned meat, bones, horns, hairs and aborted fetuses (Shuval, 1972).
The most important issues in all meat processing plants are maintenance of proper hygiene and adequate sanitary conditions. Feeding a growing population from a limited land area is a challenge and pro-livestock lobby maintains that livestock are essential to developing sustainable agricultural system in many parts of the world. However, livestock production which is perceived by the public to be potential food for the world’s needy people is a major pollutant of the country side (where they are raised) and the cities (Alonge, 1991; Meadows, 1995). Abattoir wastes could consist of pollutants such as animal faeces, blood, fat, animal trimming, paunch content and urine. An abattoir is a premises approved and registered by the controlling authority for hygienic slaughtering, inspection of animals, processing and effective preservation, and storage of meat products for human consumption (Anjaneyulu, 2006).
Ezeoha et al. (2011) report that one type of waste that is of great concern in both urban and rural areas in Nigeria is abattoir or slaughterhouse wastes. Almost every day in all the urban and rural markets in Nigeria, animals are slaughtered and the meat sold to the public for consumption. Meat wastes originate from killing; hide removal or dehairing, paunch handling, rendering, trimming, processing and clean-up operations. Therefore, abattoir wastes often contain blood, fat, organic and inorganic solids, and salts and chemicals added during processing operations contains undigested materials called paunch manure, which can contain long hairs, whole grains and large plant fragments. The faeces of livestock (animal manure) consist of undigested food, mostly cellulose-fibre, undigested protein, excess Nitrogen from digested protein, residue from digested fluids, waste mineral matter, worn-out cells from intestinal linings, mucus, bacteria, and foreign matter such as dirt consumed, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Phosphorous, Sodium, etc. Abattoir effluent (waste water) has a complex composition and can be very harmful to the environment. Therefore the importance of knowing the pollution potentials of abattoir wastes cannot be over-emphasized.
Abattoir wastes just like any other waste can be detrimental to human and the environment if definite precautions are not taken. In the Nigerian livestock industry, slaughter houses are littered with non-meat products and wastes that need to be recycled into useful by-products for further agricultural and other industrial uses (Osibanjo et al, 2007). This constitutes public health risk and nuisance in most slaughter houses spread across Nigerian markets; producing air, soil, and water pollution as well as infestation of flies and other disease vectors. For hygienic reasons abattoirs use large amount of water in processing operations; and this produces large amount of wastewater. The major environmental problem associated with this abattoir wastewater is the large amount of suspended solid and liquid waste as well as odour generation (Gauri, 2006).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Livestock are being slaughtered on daily basis in abattoirs across the Local Government. In light of the negative effects of waste from these abattoirs, there is a need for us to properly understand the types of waste being generated and how they are managed across the different abattoirs. These abattoirs vary in sizes from one location to another and the wastes generated at these abattoirs also vary (Abdulmalik, 2009). Similar researches have been done by several scholars across Nigeria, such as Alex et al, 2009; Abdulmalik, 2009; and Nwanta et al, 2010. But the most striking problem is they put more emphasis on solid and liquid waste produced by these abattoirs. Therefore, this study will focus on environmental health implications of wastes generated by the abattoirs to the host communities. This constitutes the problem for the study.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The aim of this research is to examine the environmental health implications of waste generated in the study area. This aim could be achieved through the following objectives: –
v To identify the categories of waste generated in the selected abattoirs.
v To highlight the implications of waste on human health.
v To determine the implications on the air quality.
v To determine the implications on surface water quality
v To determine the implications on land quality
v To find out if there is any government role in waste management of the selected abattoirs.
v To determine the variation of effluent in the selected areas
v To find out perception on possible infections
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
The research is aimed at finding out the environmental health implication of waste generated in the study area. Therefore, the study is of paramount importance since the research will try as much as possible towards finding ways in which butchers uses to manage their waste (management practices). And also the implications of the wastes generated to the host communities
The butchers generate waste in their own routine activities in Abattoirs, therefore, the research finding will definitely be to their advantage because they will be familiar with their waste management practices and as well as the environmental health implications of each of the method they are using in disposing of their waste. Additionally, as for Kaduna South Local Government Area, the research can serve as a guide which could provide the basis for imposing some bye-laws and regulations within their jurisdiction on waste management practices in abattoirs across the area.
1.5 THE SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
The scope of this research shall limit itself to the Environmental Health Implications of Waste Generated to the host communities. Areas concern for this study includes Makera, Tudun Wada, and Barnawa; all located in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State.