EVALUATION OF FRESH AQUATIC PLANT (Azollapinnata) AND ARTIFICIAL DIET ON GROWTH

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EVALUATION OF FRESH AQUATIC PLANT (Azollapinnata) AND ARTIFICIAL DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, GASTRIC EVACUATION RATE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromisniloticus)

ABSTRACT

Alternative plant protein sources are generally cheaper compared to animal protein sources and may be the solution to reduce the high dependence of farmers on fish meal due to the limited world supplies and increasing price of fishmeal. This study focuses on growth performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus); its gastric evacuation rate and carcass composition when fed with fresh aquatic plant and artificial diet.

Azollapinnataand artificial diet (control) were fed at 3% body weight of 90 Oreochromisniloticusweighing 24±1.43g for 56 days (8 weeks) in three treatments T1(artificial diet), T2 (artificial diet 50% and aquatic plant 50%) and T3 (aquatic plant); each having three replicates. Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Protein Intake (PI) and Length-Weight Relationship were used to determine the growth performance and feed utilization. The serial slaughter method was used to determine Gastric Evacuation Rate (GER) and Gastric Transit Time (GTT). Proximate composition of fish carcass was determined using standard methods. Data were analysed using Descriptive analysis and ANOVA at α0.05.

Fish fed both artificial diet and aquatic plant T2 attained a significantly higher MGW and SGR, and attained the best correlation coefficient value which indicates a good relationship between length and weight. T1 and T2 showed no significant difference in FCR but were significantly lower than T3. The PER showed that T2 was significantly higher than T1 and T3. Duncan’s test of significance indicated that there was no significant difference in the daily feeding rate and GER of Oreocromisniloticusacross the treatments but GTT differed in T3. Fish fed only Azolla, T3 had a GTT of 3 hours where as T1 and T2 was 4 hours. Carcass proximate analysis showed that crude protein of T3 was significantly higher than T1. Fat content of T3 was significantly higher than those of T1 and T2.

Oreohchromisniloticusperformed better when fed with both artificial diet and aquatic plant, it also attained a higher crude protein level and lower moisture content when fed only aquatic plant compared to those fed only artificial diet.

Key words: Oreohchromisniloticus, utlilization of aquatic plant, growth performance, gastric evacuation, carcass composition

CONTENTS

Abstract ii

Acknowledgement iv

Dedication vi

Certification vii

Table of contents viii

List of Tables xiv

List of Figures xv

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Tilapia culture in Aquaculture 1
1.2 Fresh Aquatic Plants as Plant Based Protein 3

1.3 Problem statement 3

1.4 Justification of Study 4

1.5 Objectives of Study 4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 5

2.1 Nile Tilapia Culture in Aquaculture 5

2.2 Oreochromisniloticus 6

2.2.1 Classification of Oreochromisniloticus 7

2.2.2 The Biology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus) 7

2.2.3 Water Quality Parameters for Oreochromisniloticus 9

2.3 Need for Aquatic Plants as Protein Source in Fish Feed 10

2.4 Azollapinnata 11

2.4.1 Classification of Azollapinnata 12

2.4.2 Ecology, Distribution and Description of Azollapinnata 13

2.4.3 Reproduction of Azollapinnata 14

2.4.4 Benefits of Azollato Plants 14

2.4.5 Use of Azollain Bioremediation 15

2.4.6 Use of Azollaas Nutritional Supplement for Livestock Feed 16

2.4.7 Use of Azollaas human food and component of space diet 18

2.4.8 Beneficial Effects of Azollaon Physio-chemical Properties of Soil 18

2.4.9 Nutritional values and Chemical evaluation of Azollapinnata 19

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 22

3.1 Project Site 22

3.2 Procurement of Nile Tilapia juveniles and artificial feed 22

3.3 Procurement and Culture of Fresh Aquatic Plant (Azollapinnata) 23

3.4 Experimental design and procedure 23

3.5 Water quality analysis 24

3.6 Proximate analysis of artificial feed and Azollapinnata 27

3.6.1 Determination of Ash Content 27

3.6.2 Determination of Moisture Content 28

3.6.3 Determination of Crude fiber 29

3.6.4 Determination of Protein Content 30

3.6.5 Determination of Fat Content 31

3.6.6 Amino acid profile analysis of Azollapinnata 32

3.7 Growth indices and Feed utilization indices 32

3.7.1 Mean Weight Gain, MWG (g) 32

3.7.2 Total percentage Weight Gain, TWG (%) 33

3.7.3 Specific Growth Rate (S.G.R) (%) 33

3.7.4 The Length-Weight Relationship 33

3.7.5 Condition Factor 34

3.7.6 Total Feed Intake (g) and Protein intake (g) 35

3.7.7 Feed Conversion Ratio (F.C.R) 35

3.7.8 Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) 35

3.7.9 Survival rate 35

3.8 Gastric evacuation rate and Carcass composition 36

3.9 Statistical analysis 36

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS 38

4.1 Azollapinnata reproduction 38

4.2 Water quality analysis 38

4.3 Proximate analysis of artificial diet (durante feed) 38

4.4 Proximate composition and amino acid profile of Azollapinnata 41

4.5 Growth indices 41

4.5.1 Length-Weight relationship 45

4.5.2 Condition factor 45

4.6 Feed utilization indices 45

4.7 Carcass composition of experimental fish in all treatments 51

4.8 Gastric evacuation rate of experimental fish in all treatments 51

4.9 Survival rate 51

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION 55

5.1 Azollapinnata reproduction 55

5.2 Water quality analysis 55

5.3 Proximate analysis of artificial diet (durante feed) 55

5.4 Proximate composition and amino acid profile of Azollapinnata 55

5.5 Growth performance 56

5.5.1 Length-Weight relationship 56

5.5.2 Condition factor 57

5.6 Carcass composition of experimental fish in all treatments 57

5.7 Gastric evacuation rate of experimental fish in all treatments 57

5.8 Survival rate &n

 

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EVALUATION OF FRESH AQUATIC PLANT (Azollapinnata) AND ARTIFICIAL DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, GASTRIC EVACUATION RATE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromisniloticus)

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