EVALUATION OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF THREE ORGANIC SUBSTRATES CASSAVA, MAIZE AND SUGARCANE LIQUOR.

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ABSTRACT

Energy is an important component in all the sectors of any society and serves as a key indicator of a country’s socio-economic growth, poverty eradication and security. This study was aimed at evaluating the biofuel production potential of three organic substrates (Cassava, Maize and Sugarcane Liquor). A total of 10kg weight each of the three samples was obtained from a local distributor at Marian Market Calabar, Cross River State. The organic substrates were then subjected to a four stage fermentation processes that lasted for a period of ten (10) days with subsequent production of bioethanol using distillation method. The results show bacterial isolates before fermentation include Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Candida and Rhizopus Sp. While isolates after fermentation include Klebsiella, Serratia, Mucor, Aspergillus and Saccharomyces Spp. the result revealed that sugarcane had the highest production potential of bioethanol (15mls), compared to cassava produced with bioethanol production of 12mls. However, the combination of maize, cassava and sugarcane produced (10mls) of bioethanol while the lowest yield was obtained from maize which was 4mls. The results obtained also revealed that the bioethanol yield from maize was very weak compared to the yield from sugarcane that was very strong.  A total of 63mls of bioethanol was produced from the substrates and their combination. This study revealed that the three substrates can be used to produce bioethanol. This thus suggests that, the studied substrates with high yield of bioethanol especially sugarcane can be harnessed for commercial production, hence the need for further research.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                                        i

Certification                                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                          iv

Abstract                                                                                                          v

Table of Content                                                                                             vi

List of Tables                                                                                                  xi

List of Plates                                                                                                   xii

List of Figures                                                                                                 xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                        1

  1. Background of the Study                                                                   1
    1. Statement of the Research Problem                                                                           
    1. Aims and Objectives of the Study                                                    
    1. Justification of the Study                                                                              

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Biofuel                                                                                               

2.2       History of Biofuel

2.3       Generations of Biofuel                                                                                  

2.3.1    First Generation Biofuel                                                                                

2.3.2    Second Generation Biofuel                                                   

2.3.3    Third Generation Biofuel                                                                   

2.3.4    Fourth Generation Biofuel                                                                             

2.4       Types of Biofuel                                                                                            

2.4.1    Biogas                                                                                                            

2.4.2    Syngas                                                                                                            

2.4.3    Ethanol                                                                                                           

2.4.4    Methanol                                                                                                        

2.4.5    Biodiesel                                                                                                        

2.4.6    Green Diesel                                                                                      

2.5       Common Feedstock for Biofuel Production                                                 

2.5.1    Sugarcane                                                                                                       

2.5.2    Cassava                                                                                                          

2.5.3    Soybeans                                                                                                        

2.5.4    Sweet Sorghum                                                                                  

2.5.5    Palm Oil                                                                                                         

2.5.6    Jatrophacurcas                                                                                                

2.6       Manufacturing process of biofuels

2.6.1    Pretreatment                                                                                       

2.6.2    Hydrolysis                                                                                                      

2.6.3    Fermentation                                                                                      

2.6.4    Distillation                                                                                                     

2.7       Importance of biofuels                                                                                   

2.7.1    Limitation of Biofuel Production and Utilization                                         

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       Study Area and Sampling Site

3.2       Materials 

3.3       Media

3.4       Methods

3.4.1    Proximate analysis of substrates

3.4.2    Preparation of substrates for biofuel production

3.5       Microbial screening of collected samples

3.6       Determination of total viable counts (TVC)

3.7       Gram Staining and Microscopy 

3.7.1    Biochemical Tests

3.7.2    Motility Test

3.7.3    Oxidase Test

3.7.4    Catalase Test

3.7.5    Methyl Red Test

3.7.6    Indole Test

3.7.7    Citrate Test

3.7.8    Coagulase Test

3.7.9    Urease Test

3.7.10  Triple Sugar Iron (sugar fermentation test)

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

4.1       Proximate Composition of Substrates

4.2       Characterization of Bacteria Isolates

4.3       Distribution and frequency of occurrence of bacteria species

from substrates before fermentation

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Discussion

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation 

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

LIST OF TABLES

Table4.1: Proximate analysis of cassava, Maize and sugarcane liquor

Table4.2: Frequency of occurrence of Bacteria species before fermentation

Table4.3: Frequency of occurrence of fungal species before fermentation

Table4.4: Frequency of occurrence of fungal species after fermentation.

Table4.5: Frequency of occurrence bacteria species after fermentation

Table4.6: Characterization and identification of bacteria isolates

from cassava, maize and sugarcane liquor.

Table4.7: Characterization and identification of fungal isolates

from cassava, maize and sugarcane liquor

LISTS OF PLATES

Plate 3.1: substrates before beginning fermentation process

Plate 3.2: culture plates before and after fermentation

Plate 3.3: distillation setup.

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 4.1: Amount of Bioethanol produced from each substrates and in their combination.

EVALUATION OF BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF THREE ORGANIC SUBSTRATES CASSAVA, MAIZE AND SUGARCANE LIQUOR.