EVALUATION OF STORAGE CONTROL POINT AND IMPLICATED PATHOGENS ON FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS – OGUN AND LAGOS STATES AS CASE STUDY

0
40

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                                                                                     Page

Title                                                                                                                           Page Certification……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. i

Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii

Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv

Table of contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. v

List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi

List of Appendices………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vii

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
    1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
    1. Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
      1. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
      1. How to measure successful implementation of HACCP……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
      1. Principles of HACCP…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
        1. Conduct a hazard analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
        1. Identify critical control……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
        1. Establish critical limits for each critical control point………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
        1. Establish corrective actions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
        1. Establish verification procedure………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
        1. Implementation of a monitoring system…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
        1. Establish recordkeeping and documentation procedures……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
      1. Potential areas of uses……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
      1. Prerequisite programs and HACCP……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
      1. Critical Control Point (CCP). 11
      1. Spoilage pathogens in food product quality 11

v

  1. Clostridium perfringens…………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

1.2.72 Campylobacter specie………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

  1. Staphylococcus aureus…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
    1. Bacillus cereus……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
    1. Escherichia coli……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
    1. Escherichia coli O157…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
    1. Yeast…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
    1. Salmonella…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
    1. Spoilage Pathogens in water product quality…………………………………………………………………. 18
    1. Spoilage pathogens in pharmaceuticals product quality………………………………………………….. 19
      1. Sanitation and hygiene…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
    1. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)……………………………………………………………………….. 20
      1. Food hygiene……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
      1. Personal hygiene of food handlers…………………………………………………………………………… 23
      1. The steps for proper hygienic hand washing…………………………………………………………….. 25
      1. Kitchen sanitation…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
      1. Kitchen hygiene……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
    1. Food quality control…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
    1. Food quality and public health………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
    1. Fast moving consumer goods (FMCG)………………………………………………………………………. 30
      1. Understanding consumer behaviour………………………………………………………………………… 31
      1. Socially desirable FMCGS…………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
      1. Milo…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
      1. Knorr…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
      1. Indomie……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
      1. Golden Morn………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
    1. Aim and Objectives of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………… 33
    1. Justification of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………………… 33

vi

2.60 Isolation of Organisms………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESULTS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40

vii

CHAPTER FOUR

References………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66

viii

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix                                                                                                                                           Page

  1. Biochemical Tests and Agar Used……………………………………………………………………… 74
  2. Plates……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79

ix

LIST OF TABLES

Tables                                                                                                                                                       Pages

  • Colony Counts From Triplicate Culture From Lagos For Sausage………………………………… 42
    • Colony Counts From Triplicate Culture From Sango For Sausage………………………………… 42
    • Colony Counts From Triplicate Culture From Agbara For Sausage………………………………. 43
    • Colony Counts From Triplicate Culture From Lagos For Indomie………………………………… 43
    • Colony Counts From Triplicate Culture From Sango For Indomie……………………………….. 44
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture From Agbara For Indomie………………………………. 44
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture From Lagos For Maggi………………………………….. 45
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture From Sango For Maggi…………………………………. 45
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture From Agbara For Maggi……………………………….. 46
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture From Lagos For Golden Morn……………………….. 46
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture From Sango For Golden Morn………………………. 47
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture From Agbara For Golden Morn…………………….. 47
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture From Lagos For Milo…………………………………… 48
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture From Sango For Milo…………………………………… 48
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture From Agbara For Milo…………………………………. 49
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture from Lagos for Lucozade boost………………………. 49
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture from Sango for Lucozade boost……………………… 50
    • Colony Counts From Duplicate Culture from Agbara for Lucozade boost…………………….. 50
    • Distribution of Isolates Per Product…………………………………………………………………………. 51
    • Percentage Prevalence Per Organism………………………………………………………………………… 51
    • Percentage Prevalence of individual organism per location………………………………………….. 51
    • Mean Colony Forming Unit (CFU/ml) per Product…………………………………………………….. 52
    • Colony Forming Unit (CFU/ml) per Location……………………………………………………………. 52
    • Result showing the Colony Forming Unit (CFU/ml) of the organism……………………………. 53
    • Identification of Bacteria Isolates……………………………………………………………………………… 55
    • Biochemical test and identification of isolates……………………………………………………………. 56

x

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1   INTRODUCTION

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a scientific and systematic approach applied in the food industry for the identification and the control of specific hazards. It has been widely adopted by countries all over the world as well as international organizations, including the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization, and is currently a world-recognized preventive management system to maintain food hygiene. The use of hazard analysis and critical control point-based quality assurance has a well-established place in controlling hazards on food supply chains. It is an assurance system based on the prevention of food safety problems and is accepted by international authorities as the most effective means of controlling food-borne diseases (Stanley et al., 2011).

The HACCP program covers the input of the materials, production process, final products, facilities, and personnel at the Critical Control Points (CCPs). It consists of two major components: hazard analysis and the control measure of the critical limits. Hazard analysis is the process of identifying and evaluating the potential hazard factors that may negatively affect food safety, while the control measure is to prevent or eliminate the hazards to a minimized and acceptable level. The HACCP system has been increasingly and successfully applied by the food industry and by official food control authorities to prevent and control risks associated with potential contamination of food products with pathogenic micro-organisms  and  chemical  toxicants.  Food  safety  programs  routinely use information about the factors leading to contamination to establish preventive and control procedures, thus providing the consumer with a safe, wholesome food supply (Mehta, 2015).

Death and hospitalization consequent to food poisoning from infectious agents are frequent and represent a serious threat for all countries. A possible solution could give more responsibility to the final consumer, using clear labels (Khalid, 2015) which highlights products‟ safety, similar to the Critical Control Point (CCP) which are part of HACCP. This is extremely important for young, old, pregnant women and immune deficient people which are very sensitive to small contaminations from bacteria (Khalid, 2012).

EVALUATION OF STORAGE CONTROL POINT AND IMPLICATED PATHOGENS ON FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS – OGUN AND LAGOS STATES AS CASE STUDY