This project is focused on the evaluation of the impact of untreated sewage effluent on farm lands. Use of sewage water for irrigation improved chemical properties and fertility status in soil. Sewage water contains elements essential for plant growth and also contains heavy metals which may be toxic for animals if their concentration exceeds than permissible limit. To monitor this situation, a survey was conducted to ascertain the addition of heavy metals into agricultural fields through sewage water irrigation for grass crop in the farmlands of selected areas of Sancaros farm in Awgu local government area of Enugu state. The results indicated that in sewage water the permissible amounts of total N, total P and potassium which are considered essential nutrients for productivity levels (grassgrowth) and soil fertility.
1.1 Background of the Study
Land application of wastewater is centuries old practice. This practice was introduced in US more thaii one hunched years ago but general interest on the subject waned after the turn of the century in favour of more mechanized method of waste treatment and disposal (Jewel and Seabrook. 2011). It allows disposal of the sewage effluents and fulfills the increasing demand of water for agricultural purposes. The cost of constructing. operating and maintaining a land treatment facility is generally considered to be lower than corresponding conventional waste water treatment system (Badger and Thomason. 2013). In the UK. treatment and disposal of sewage sludge from biological water plants accounts for approximately 50% of the total cost of sewage treatment, and the major US sludge disposal route is land application (Lake 2013). Due to the fact that toxic substances are concentrated in the solid phase during wastewater and sludge disposal. the sludge management can be more risky than irrigation with wastewater particularly in developing countries with economic and administrative constraints. Moreso. Mexico large quantities of sludge from a wastewater treatment plant containing pathogens and toxic substances as ionic aluminum have been deposited in open areas, causing damage on soils and problems to the inhabitants (Qrtiz-Hemandez et a!, 2011).
The reuse of domestic wastewater to irrigate agricultural land seems to be a practical option for under developed world including India. One of the most important problem in the Municipal Corporation areas of cities like Ludhiana. The reuse of domestic wastewater to irrigate agricultural land seems to be a practical option for under developed world including India. One of the most important problem in the Municipal Corporation areas of cities like Ludhiana. Jalancihar. Amritsar in Punjab. India are that industries are not confined to industrial parks rather most of the small to medium industries are running in the residential area. The owners of these small to medium industries are unable to install their treatment plants and they are disposing their effluents in the domestic sewage system of the city. which is carried forward to rural areas through open sewage drains and farmers with fields adjoining to these drains irrigate purely or mixing it with underground irrigation water. In addition to domestic effluents. a number of industries to produce large volume of effluents requiring their proper disposal. May times. industries produce highly toxic effluents which can neither be thrown into water bodies nor used for agricultural purposes as the toxic elements are likely to enter food chain through plants. annuals and fish. However, effluents of some industries have useful characteristics and. therefore. have the potential to improve the productivity of soils. The land management of such wastes thus. not only brings the economic benefits but also protect the fragile ecosystem from degradation.