This study is focused on the causes of examination malpractice among secondary school students in Enugu Education zone of Enugu State. It had become a general view to accept that the last two decades have witnessed high rate of several incidents of examination misconduct; more especially at post primary education level. According to Olatunbosum (2009); every examination witness the emergence of new and tactful ways of cheating during examinations, contrary to the normal view which assumes that examination is a formal test of somebody’s knowledge or ability in a particular subject; especially by means of answering questions or practical exercises. For detailed analysis, the above topic had been discussed under various headings and sub-headings which are categorized into chapters. For instances, chapter one introduces the subject matter of the research work; chapter two is mainly literature review, in which, the interest of students towards their studies as well as availability of teaching facilities among other things were discussed. Chapter three discuss the research methodology, while chapter four and five were based on data analysis and representation, discussion on findings, summary of findings, conclusion, implications of the study, recommendation as well as suggestion for further study.



Background of the study
Sulaiman (2008) opined that one of the objectives of education in Nigeria is to prepare the young one to face future challenges and develop them to meet the nation’s man power requirements. He also opined that schools need to conduct examinations as yard stick for assessment. According to him, examination is a formal test of some body’s knowledge or ability in a particular subject; especially by means of answering questions or practical exercises. Examination is also seen as the process through which students are evaluated or tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within a specified period of study.

According to Olujuwon (2004), the Nigeria educational system is in a state of confusion and disarray. This is as a result of inconsistence and non-implementation of educational policies, corruption and corrupt practices perpetrated by the stake – holders. There had been a clarion call by all and sundry to re-examine and appraise the educational system in line with current trends.Aisha, (2009) is of the view that examination malpractices have consistently remained a bane of Nigeria educational system. Most foreigners say that the academic certificates being issued to graduates in Nigeria are no more valuable than the pieces of paper on which they are printed. In the opinion of Aisha (2009), Examination malpractice is an illegal behaviour by a candidate before, during or after the examination so that he/she attains success easily and cheaply. Sulaimon (2008) is of the view that examination malpractice is a kind of conduct that violates the acceptable laid down rules and regulations of Nigerian Institutions. He further explained that examination malpractice is any wrong doing before, during or after any examination.

According to Suleimon (2008), education, which is a very important tool of nation building, is not given the adequate attention it deserves; as the sector is not funded adequately, no proper plan and policies that will provide the kind of leadership that is required in the sector to enable the system achieve the desired objectives. Teacher’s welfare is not properly taken care of, public schools are left without basic infrastructural development needed to stimulate learning, no proper monitoring; as most of the examination bodies are not closely monitored. So, examination malpractice has become world- wide problem, for instance, a Ghanianian, Rex Annan, Kumasi of 13th April, 2007 explained that in recent times in Ghana, the occurrences of examination malpractice had assumed an alarming trend; and that was invariably due to candidate fear of failure, lack of confidence, laziness and inadequate preparation and most often their inability to apply themselves to their studies.

However understood the examination malpractices had become a world-wide problem among students, the researchers are seriously concerned in making effort to discover the cause of this problem-especially among: secondary school students within Enugu educational zone of Enugu state, Nigeria.

Oluyeba and Daramola (1992) in their own view believe that examination malpractice is an irregular behaviour exhibited by-Candidates or anybody charged with the conduct of examination inside
Or outside the examination hail before, during or after such examination. This view was upheld by Azinge (1993) as well as Imogie (1993). Ahmed (1993) believed that an examination malpractice is any act of wrong doing or neglect that contravenes the rules of acceptable practices before, during, and after an examination by anybody in any way tantamount to malpractices.

Shonekan (1993) sees it as irregularities, when are premeditated and perpetuated by the candidates or their agents with the intention of gaining undue advantages in the examinations. Afigbo (1993) opined that the problem of examination malpractices in Nigeria seems to be as old as the-introduction of formal system of education in Nigeria. According to him, the first major incidence of examination malpractices was in 1914, when the senior Cambridge local examination leaked. This scenario took an unprecedented surge in 1963, 1967, 1977, 1981 and 1987, when two public examinations leaked.

These leakages then attracted the attention of the federal government, which led to the promulgation of Decree 27 of 1973, and miscellaneous Decree 20 of 1984 to curb examination malpractices; and later the Decree prescribed 21 years jail term for offenders.

In the opinion of Olujuwon (2004), these and other measures put in places still do not deter people from engaging in examination malpractices. In WAEC conducted examinations in 1991, 30, 982 students were involved in examination malpractices while 35, 479 students were reported in 1992 as being involved in examination malpractices as published by national dailies then.

With reference to Olujuwon (2004), investigations conducted by the national concord of Tuesday, June, 1998 revealed how teachers helped students to engages in examination malpractices by coaching them before examination day. This trend according to the report is being used by the schools involved to improve their position in the performance tables, which have become a key indicator for parents choosing a school for their children as WAEC examination centre.

Infact, authorities had also suffered as a result of students involvement in examination malpractices; for instance, in the year 2002, during the University matriculation examination (UME) conducted by the joint admission and matriculation board (JAMB), the board canceled the result of about 46, 448 candidates, allegedly involved in examination malpractices, as confirmed by (people’s choice magazine vol. 1 no 8 of 2002).Nwadiani (2005) opined that the value and functionally of any educational system lie in its ability to actualize the goals of education.In educational systems, world over, the examination process makes the difference. The goals of national education system and indeed national development become like a mirage, if examination ethics are not encouraged and instituted. According to him, till today, examination still remain the best tool for an objective assessment and evaluation of what learners have achieved after a period of schooling.Thus, any action that undermines examination poses a great threat to the validity and reliability of examination results and certification. Nwadiani (2005) opined that it is very unfortunate that the process of examination in Nigeria secondary schools has become a “contemporary shame.” He opined that this is because of the phenomenon of examination malpractice that has become endemic in the education system. He defined examination malpractice as a process in which students cheat in the examination hall.

Additionally, the examination malpractice Act (1999) explains “examination malpractice as any act or omission or commission by any person who in anticipation of, before, during or after any examination, fraudulently secure any unfair advantages for himself or any other person in such a manner that contravenes the rules and regulations to the extent of undermining the validity, reliability, authenticity of the examination and ultimately the integrity of the certificates issued.

Oluyebe and Daramola (cited in Alutu and Aluede, 2006) remarked that examination malpractice is any irregular behaviour exhibited by a candidate or any-body charged with the conduct of examination before, during or after the examination that contravenes the rules and regulations governing the conduct of such examination. In agreement with Omoluabi and Uzoka, citied in Atutu and Aluede, (2006) the value system in Nigeria has broken down completely and so adults and youths alike act without moral scruples. This is exactly why examination malpractices still thrives despite its grave consequences on the social, political and economic structure of the nation.

The examination malpractice Act No. 33 of 1999 stipulates a minimum punishment of N50,000( Fifty Thousand Naira Only), and a minimum of five years imprisonment, without option of fine, for – violators of the offences stipulated in the act. The offences are: cheating at examinations, stealing of question papers, impersonation, disturbances at examinations, obstruction of supervision, forgery of result slip, breach of duty, conspiracy and aiding, etc.
Government, examination bodies and other concerned citizens have made a lot of efforts to forestall the incidences of examination malpractice and the problems associated with the conduct of examinations in Nigeria.

Although the efforts seem to be yielding some positive results, yet incidence of examination malpractice still feature prominently in the school system. Thus, in 2006, the federal ministry of education black listed and derecognized 324 secondary schools across the nation as centres for conducting public examination from 2007 to 2010 because of their involvement in examination malpractices. (Weekend times, 17th and 18th Feb. 2007 page 4).

Distribution table of examination malpractice in Nigeria secondary schools.
North – Central 54 16.6
North – East 08 2.5
North – West 12 3.6
South – East 48 14.8
South – South 116 36.0
South – West 86 26.5
TOTAL 324 100

SOURCE: Weekend Times, 17 & 18th Feb. 2007 page 4. The above table shows the prevalence of examination malpractice in secondary schools in Nigeria. It could be observed that examination malpractice occurs in all geo – political zones in the country, with the south – East geo – political zone placed in the 4th Position of the zones with high number of schools involved in examination malpractice.

And it is necessary to note that Enugu Education zone is one of the educational zones within Enugu States which is equally one of the states within the south – east geo –political zone of the country.

However, it is very unfortunate that the phenomenon of examination malpractice seems to be aggravated by large scale of shameful involvement of dishonest and greedy teachers, school heads, parents and all those who take part in admission of examination (Ijaiya 1998).In the opinions of Badmus, (2006) and Aminu (2006) the phenomenon of examination malpractice is influenced by many factors which include lack of confidence as a result of inadequate preparation, peer-influence, societal influence, parental support and poor facilities in schools.Writing in the same vein, Awanbor (2005), Nwadiani – (2005), Okafor (2006) Ayua (2006) and Azara (2006) identified school programmes, teaching / learning environment, the teacher, over – value of certificates, decadence in the Nigeria society and parental support as some factors responsible for examination malpractice in Nigeria educational system.

Statement of problem:
The ever continued cry of increased examination malpractices in our secondary schools hall become a very serious problems to every reasonable and responsible – citizen. Lack of staff disciplinary measures coupled with commitment by parents in particular had become the major problem that is invariably threatening the survival of students’ academic excellence in our schools.

With reference to Suleimon (2008), the examination bodies, to an extent constitute problems that cause examination malpractices in our secondary schools. According to him, W.A.E.C, N.E.C.O, JAMB and other examination bodies in Nigeria are major players in the perpetration of examination malpractice. He opined that most of the private schools which WAEC or NECO give centres are haven for the perpetration of examination misconduct.

He is of the view that in most cases, some WAEC external invigilators are bought over and as a result, all sorts of illegitimate activities could be going on in those centers, all these activities really constitute to a very large extent; the problems which the researchers wish to unravel which underscores the need for the study.

Purpose of the study
In fact, the primary objective of this study is to discover the causes of examination malpractices among secondary school students in Enugu education zone of Enugu State. Therefore, bearing the above background in mind, the researchers are specifically interested in using the study to find:
i. The interest of students towards their studies
ii. Availability of teaching aids or teaching facilities.
iii. The effect of parental influence as one of the factors that cause examination malpractices.

Significance of the study
The significance of the study manifests itself both practically and theoretically. For instance, Olatunbosu (2009) opined that a society that places exceptionally strong emphasis on goal achievement; without a corresponding emphasis on institutionalized means of achieving these goals, is bound to exert pressures on some members of the society that may eventually resort to the use of any technically expedient means in achieving these goals; irrespective of whether the means employed is legitimate or not.

It is very significant to note that Olatunbosun’s ideology is the basic societal concept as far as examination malpractice is concerned. Presently, there has been nation-wide out cry of examination misconduct at all levels of institution of learning. These had been series of new paper reports as well as radio broadcast on the subject.

Consequently, this study is very significant because the researchers are hoped to discover the major causes of examination malpractices; especially among secondary school students within Enugu Education zone of Enugu State among other things. They will also discover the general effects of the problem and will as well detect the expected remedy; of which there is strong hope that at the end of the research work, the findings and recommendations by the researchers should be of much benefit to the students and the post primary school management board (PPSMB) of Enugu State.

Scope of the study
It is the desire of the researchers to cover the whole secondary schools within Enugu Educational zone; but due to some financial difficulties and time constraints, they wish to limit the study to only (5) five secondary school within Enugu Education Zone.

Research Questions
In order to carry out this research work in respect of the cause of examination malpractices among secondary school students in Enugu Education zone very effectively, the following research questions had been put forward.
i. To what extent the interest of students towards their studies lead to examination malpractices among secondary school students in Enugu Education zone?
ii. To what extent lack of teaching aids or teaching facilities cause examination malpractice among the secondary school students in Enugu Education Zone?
iii. How does the societal need for paper qualification and parental influence contribute to examination malpractices among secondary school students in Enugu Education zone?




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