EXTRACTION OF ALKALOIDS FROM THREE NIGERIANS PLANTS, KOLA ACCUMINA (OJI IGBO), KOLA VERA (OJI HAUSA) AND GAXCINA KOLA (BITTER KOLA)

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EXTRACTION OF ALKALOIDS FROM THREE NIGERIANS PLANTS, KOLA ACCUMINA (OJI IGBO), KOLA VERA (OJI HAUSA) AND GAXCINA KOLA (BITTER KOLA)

ABSTRACT

The   extraction of alkaloid from Gaxcina  kola (bitter Kola), Kola acuminated (Oji Igbo) and Kola Vera (Oji Hausa) were carried out using 10% enthanoic acid and 10% ethanol to separate the alkaloid from the residue. The alkaloid was extracted using 5% ammonium hydroxide. From the sample results obtained on alkaloid for the sample 9.16% oji Igbo, 6.20% oji Hausa and 8.20% Bitter kola. It was observed that the percentage of alkaloids was highest in Oji Igbo and the least for Oji Hausa.

  CHAPTER ONE

1.1   INTRODUCTION

Alkaloids are a class of organic compounds that typically contain nitrogen and have complex ring structures. They occur naturally in seed bearing plants and are found in berries, bark, fruits, roots and leaves. That is, they are derived from plants. Often, they are bases that have some physiological effects. Many of the earliest isolated pure compounds with biological activity. This was due to the ease of isolation. The nitrogen generally makes the compound basic and the compound exists in the plant as a salt. This, alkaloids are often extracted with water or mild acid and then recovered as crystalline material by treatment with base. Prior to approximately 300 years ago malaria was the scourage of Europe, likely  having been introduced though the middle East. Malaria is caused by protozoa of the genus plasmodium, contained as spores in the gut of the anopheles mosquitoes, which then spread the spores to humans when they bites. As the Spanish and Portuguese explores began to colonize. South America they discovered a cure for Malaria known to the native Indians. This was the bark of the cinchona tress. The use of cinchona bark to treat Malaria was first reported in Europe in 1633, and the first bark reached Rome about 12 years later teas made from the bark cures people suffering from Malaria, one of the major scourges in Europe at the time and the bark became known as Jesuits bark. Because of the philosophical differences between protestants and catholic, many protestants refused to be treated with the bark. One of the most prominent protestants of the time, Olive Isolate originally from cinchona Succirubra, quinine is one of 31 alkaloids with related structure, and the principal ant malaria compound, in the plant. Alkaloids have been defined in various ways, but one definition come fairly close to actuality.

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EXTRACTION OF ALKALOIDS FROM THREE NIGERIANS PLANTS, KOLA ACCUMINA (OJI IGBO), KOLA VERA (OJI HAUSA) AND GAXCINA KOLA (BITTER KOLA)

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