This project is basically concerned with the extraction of DNA in tomatoes and garden egg fruit.
An experiment on how to extract DNA on tomatoes and garden egg, isolation on it to see what DNA actually look like as well as importance of DNA extraction are considered in this project.
1.1 HISTORY OF DNA
THE STRUCTURE OF DNA
Working together at the University of Cambridge in England, James Watson, An American Scientist and Francis Crick, a British researcher made a major scientific breakthrough, when they discovered the famous “double helix”. The structure of DNA, the molecule of life.
In April 25, 1983, issue of science Journal Nature, Watson and Cricks Wrote, we wish to suggest a structure for the slat of dexyribose Nucleic acid (DNA). This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest.
Nine years later, in 1962, they received the Nobel prizes for answering one of science’s long pondered mysteries, advancing the emergency field of molecular biology in the process.
Watson and Crick’s quest helps illustrate how collaboration, creativity, handwork and serendipity often conspire on the oath to scientific achievement.
A EUREKA MOVEMENT
Decyribonecliec acid (DNA) was first isolated in 189 by the Swiss scientist friedrish Mieschre he called the white, slightly acidic chemical that he fond in cells “nulein”. By the late 1940s, scientists knew what DNA contained-phosphate sugar and four nitrogen containing chemical “bases” adenime (A), thymine (T), Guanine (G), and cytosine (C). But no one has figured out what the DNA molecule looked like. Friedrich (1869).
In 1993, Linus Pauling, the great American Chemist, claimed to have discovered the structure of the DNA molecule, but when Watson saw Pauling’s research paper (which has not yet been published) on January 28, 1953, he knew it was wrong. A few days later at King’s college in London, Watson was shown an x-ray diffraction photograph of the DNA crystal taken by scientist (Watson J, 2001).
WHAT IS DNA?
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is a long polymer-type molecule in which the replicating groups are nucleotides.
Deoxyribonucleic acid, more commonly known as DNA is a complex molecule that contains all of the information necessary to build and maintain an organism. All living things have DNA within their cells. Infact, nearly every cell in a multi-cellular organism possess the full set of DNA required for that organism. However, DNA does more that specific the structure and function of living things. It is also serves as the primary unit of heredity in organism of all types. In other words, whenever organisms of all types in reproduce, a portion of their DNA is passed along to their offspring. This transmission of all or part of an organism’s DNA helps ensure a certain level of continuity form one generation to the next, while still allowing for insight changes that contribute to the diversity of life.
Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus where it is called nuclear DNA but a small amount of DNA can be founded in the mitochondria where it is called mitochondria DNA (Rasmussim S, 2000).
DNA which is a long molecule, like a chain where the link of the chain are pieces called nucleotide some times also called “bases”. There are four different types of nucleotides in DNA which is called “A” “G”, “C”, and “T”. These four are all that is necessary to write a code that describes our entire body plan. The four nucleotides look a little bit alike. They all have a ring of carbons called, in chemist’s terminology, a ‘sugar’. However, each nucleotide also has another type of ring structure and this is where the four types of nucleotide are different. These rings are organic base much like the more familiar mineral acids and bases like NOH or HCL, except these bases are composed of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. (Rasmiussim S, 2005).
EXTRACTION OF DNA
Since DNA is the blueprint for life, everything living contains DNA. DNA isolation is one of the most basic and essential techniques in the study of DNA. The extraction of DNA from cells and its purification are of primary importance to the field of biotechnology and forensic. Extraction and purification of DNA are the first steps in the analysis and manipulation of DNA that allow scientist to detect genetic disorder, produce DNA finger prints for individuals and even create genetically engineered organisms that can produce beneficial products such as insulin, antibiotics and hormones. (Kelly O, 2004).