Gendered Livelihood Strategies and Poverty Impact Among Rural Households in Niger State, Nigeria

0
50

Abstract:

This study examined gender-based variations in livelihood diversification strategies and their implications for the poverty status of rural households in Niger State, Nigeria. Employing a multi-stage sampling approach, 138 male and 92 female rural households were selected for data collection. A structured questionnaire combined with interview schedules was utilized to gather primary data. Descriptive statistics (averages, percentages, and frequencies) and inferential techniques (Logit and Tobit regression models) as well as the Foster Greer and Thorbeck (FGT) model were employed for data analysis. The analysis outcomes revealed that males and females had mean ages of 39 and 35 years, respectively. The male population had an average of 12 years of formal education, while females had an average of 6.5 years. Male households possessed an average farm size of 2.1 hectares, whereas female households had 1.4 hectares. The majority (79.7%) of males were married, compared to 94.6% of females. In terms of engagement, 70.3% of males and 88.0% of females had contact with extension agents, 63.0% of males and 56.5% of females had access to credit, and 41.3% of males and 89.1% of females were members of cooperative societies. Livelihood diversification strategies encompassed crop, livestock, and non-farm activities. Males were predominantly involved in strategies such as rice cultivation (89.1%), earning an average annual income of ₦534,768, chicken rearing (31.2%) with an average annual income of ₦71,349, and self-employment (61.6%) with a mean monthly income of ₦49,027. Conversely, females were primarily engaged in vegetable production (85.9%), yielding an average annual income of ₦103,533, chicken rearing (75.0%) with an average annual income of ₦85,993, and self-employment (77.2%) with a mean monthly income of ₦35,027. The analysis of poverty levels indicated that 47.8% of males were non-poor, 42.8% were poor, and 9.4% were categorized as core-poor, while 59.8% of females were non-poor, 27.2% were poor, and 13.0% were core-poor. The Logit regression analysis highlighted that factors such as household size, farm size, livelihood diversification strategies, income, extension contact, credit, and cooperative membership influenced the poverty status of males, while factors like age, marital status, expenditure, farm size, livelihood diversification strategies, income, extension contact, and cooperative involvement influenced the poverty status of females. Moreover, the Tobit regression model demonstrated that factors including household size, education, farming experience, credit, farm size, income, expenditure, extension contact, and occupation influenced the livelihood diversification strategies of males, while years of farming experience, credit, expenditure, cooperative society membership, and extension contact influenced the diversification strategies of females. The primary challenges reported by males were inadequate credit access and limited market information, while females cited increased production costs and insufficient credit access. In conclusion, females exhibited a lower incidence of poverty compared to males. However, both genders’ livelihood diversification strategies significantly impacted their vulnerability to poverty. This study recommends collaborative efforts between rural households, government agencies, and NGOs through seminars and workshops to foster robust social networks and implement social investment policies that enhance informed livelihood diversification decisions.

Gendered Livelihood Strategies and Poverty Impact Among Rural Households in Niger State, Nigeria,  GET MORE, ACTUARIAL SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

DOWNLOAD PROJECT