GOVERNMENT STRATEGIES AND MANAGEMENT OF SECURITY CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This study was carried out on government strategies and management of security challenges in Nigeria. Following a careful review of existing literature, in spite of the growing security issues in Nigeria, there are limited academic works thus limiting in-depth insight into key areas of security concerns. This study used a mixed research design which combines the collective use of qualitative and quantitative data methodology. From these findings, the study identifies evidence linking different group causes of the security issues and also loophole in the available policies. Such awareness can help the Nigerian Government, NGOs, International Organisations and other interested bodies improve policies for security challenges especially in developing diverse nationals. Although, previous studies restrict findings to, identifying one cause of security challenges. The study showed that corruption especially in public offices is to a large extent a problem in the security system, the government needs to implement more rigid laws that allow the persecution of public office holders during their term in office, this will allow for the better management of greed and an improved execution of duties while in office. The judiciary and the executive tier of government should also rule out any form of double standards regarding mitigating and enforcing of corruption based offences.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The freedom from danger, care intimidation, apprehension, the feeling or assurance of safety, peace of mind or absence of fear, and the certainty or assurance of the good life or welfare – constitutes one of the fundamental objectives and indeed the foremost responsibility of every government and the state. In Nigeria, the constitution unequivocally spelt out as a fundamental objective and directive principle of state policy that “the security and welfare of the people (of Nigeria) shall be the primary purpose of government” (Section 14 (2) (b) Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999). Nigeria in recent times has witnessed an unprecedented level of insecurity. No wonder national security has become an issue for government, prompting huge allocation of the national budget to security. According to Azazi (2011), in order to check the crime rate in Nigeria, the federal government has embarked on criminalization of terrorism by passing the anti-terrorism Act in 2011, installation of computer-based Closed Circuit Television cameras (CCTV) in some parts of the country, enhancement of surveillance as well as investigation of criminal related offences, heightening of physical security measures around the country aimed at determining or disrupting potential attacks, strengthening of security agencies through the provision of security facilities and the development and broadcast of security tips in mass media. Despite these efforts, the level of insecurity in Nigeria is still high and the country has been consistently ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2012), signifying poor state of insecurity in the country as indicated.

The term security has been used to mean protection against or safety from a future risk of severe deprivation, injury or death and requires rules, order and impartial adjudication and application. Security according to Achumba, Ighomereho & Akpo-Robaro (2013) refers to a situation that exists as a result of the establishment of measure for the protecting of persons, information and property against hostile persons, influences and actions. It is the existence of conditions within which people in a society can go about their normal daily activities without any threat to their lives or properties. It embraces all measures designed to protect and safeguard the citizenry and the resources of individuals, groups, businesses and the nation against sabotage or violent occurrence (Achumbo et al, 2013). Security is the protection against all forms of harm whether physical, economic or psychological. It is however argued that security may not be absence of threats or security issues but the ability to rise to the challenges posed by threats with expediency and expertise. Security cannot therefore exist without provision for national security. Aggressive and repressive states can be major sources of human insecurity and a greater source of human suffering.