CONSTRAINTS TO EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN OSHIMILI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE (GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS)
Background of the Study
Guidance and Counselling can be said to be one of those social practices which the school found useful to inherit and eventually to transform and incorporate a unique segment of a wholesome educational programme. Guidance is viewed from various perspective of different people resulting in varieties of definition. Traditionally, Ipaye (1985) sees guidance as a quasi parental style of steering the chid towards behaviour or decision deemed to be his own good. This definition implies that a mature mind is one to take wise and realistic decisions on his own. Also Shetzer and Stone (1976) defined guidance as a process of helping individual to understand themselves and their world. This means that guidance is a continuous assistance to people to rediscover themselves, that is, their strength and weaknesses in order to achieve their life goals within the frame work of their environmental forces.
Furthermore, from the definition, guidance could be seen as a help given to individuals not once but from cradle to death. Such help enable the people or person to identify his life goals, means of achieving them and problems militating against his/her reaching his goals, while Oladele (1906) sees guidance as an umbrella term which refers to guiding and protecting the development of students.
While counselling according to Thompson Popper (1972) sees it as a person to person relationship in which one person helps another to solve an era of conflict, that has been hitherto resolve in this view Biocher (1966) defined counselling as helping an individual become aware of himself and the ways in which he is reacting to the behavioural influence of his environment. It further helps him to establish some personal meaning for his behaviour and to become a person who is able to handle further difficulties.
Guidance and Counselling as an educational concept, is seen as an educational programme of a school, it refers to that group of specialised services which a school provides to enrich the educational experience of each pupil (Cox, 1938).
However, the complex and sophisticated nature of an community demands on students, made it necessary to introduced Guidance and Counselling services in our educational system. This will aid to solve vocational, educational and personal-social problems of the students making them well adjusted to meet with the expectations of our time.