HUMAN RELATION FACTORS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS’ ATTITUDE TO WORK IN UYO URBAN, AKWA IBOM STATE
- Background of the Study
In formal organizations such as the schools system task accomplishment is foremost in the mind of the administrator. The degree to which task can be accomplished among other things will depend on the human relations factors of the super-ordinate which in some cases include his level of communication, delegation of duties, level of instructional supervision, level of staff motivation and level of community relations.
Ironically, a casual observation of the degree of availability of these factors is far from the ideal. Most administrators because of their limited training in human management lack necessary skills e.g. ordinary courtesy and effectiveness in dealing with others through normal contacts and request for providing information, understanding, influencing and/or serving people i.e. causing action or understanding in others, combined skill in selecting, developing and motivating people in getting work done. This is because many a time emphasis is placed on the work itself with limited consideration about human aspect of the organization. For instance, Blake and Mouton (1964) in their famous managerial Grid (9.9) showed the importance of a manager having concern for both production and for people. In line with the above, Mbipom (2000) stressed that man who does the job is more important than the work itself, as a result everything0 possible must be done to make him comfortable in his work in order to have positive notion of his job. In Akwa Ibom State secondary school system, the attitude of teachers to work has been associated with limited Human Relations of school administrators. As a result of this, teachers seem to show negative attitude such as absenteeism, lateness to work and classes, lack of seriousness on duty, engaging in private businesses to the detriment of their primary assignment and lack of commitment to duty. The assumption that follows has been that democratic administrative climate did not prevail in our schools. Peretomode (1999) emphasized that educational administrator should take steps to satisfy psychological as well as economic needs of teachers i.e. regard workers as human beings with definite needs which they seek to satisfy in the course of their interaction in the organization.
The assumptions of human relations movement or approach to administration stressed that increase productivity occurs when the basic human needs are given due consideration by the manager. That man works well when he is given due respect, love, recognition as human being. That, a teacher shows positive attitude in his work place when he knows that his principal gives equal justice for everyone and there is no room for favoritism and discriminations.
Edwin (1980) looked at the importance of human relations as integration of persons and organization if positive attitude to work is to result, i.e. the school should be managed in such a way that what is good for the teacher is also good for the organization. School administrators and teachers they lead are interacting members of a broad social system as school. The concept of individual dignity, derived from ethical philosophy meaning that people must be treated with respect, no matter what their position in the organization is, because all workers contribute to fulfillment of the goal of the organization. Hence, the following assumptions that people want to feel useful and important; people (workers/teachers) desire to belong and to be recognized as individuals. The human relations needs are more important than money in motivating people to work. And it is on the basis of this problem that this study is predicted upon.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The major problem in the administration of secondary schools system centered on negative attitude of teachers toward school work. And this problem may not be unconnected with the human relations problem of our schools principals. In effect, the administrators feel that the human factor in administration, should not be given due attention. As a result, they (administrators) appear very has hash and rude to teachers without regard to their human dignity and feelings. To this, set of principals, whenever the teachers seek, humane treatment and justice in the organization, the popular answer always is “wait for your turn”. So this group of administrators looks at teachers’ suggestions and participation in the administration as an encroachment on their birth rights and a threat to their position. In short, when teachers cannot change autocratic tendencies in the school administration, they resort to absenteeism, lateness to school and classes, non-keeping of school records, indecisiveness, hostility, open confrontation, in-appropriate responses to directives and destructiveness. And this would certainly result in the poor output of the secondary schools system.
Attitude of secondary schools teachers in recent time has been seen by many as being far from the ideal. For instance, teachers abandon their classroom teaching for full time business, politics and religious activities. This problem has a link with limited human relations considerations of our secondary school principals who are concerned with task accomplishment with no regard to human factors in school administration. That is, some school principal would have three or four vice-principals, but would not delegate duties to these subordinates as a results of lack of trust.
The general administrative climate in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom is characterized by a trend of principal not circulating well with staff and students. That is, teachers are not properly informed of schools goals, motivated for greater professional efficiency, or supervised in teaching process. Human relations meant the recognition of the fact that man who does the job is so important that everything possible must be done by the administrations to make him comfortable in his work place. Hence, the problem of this study was to find out how human relations factors affect teachers’ attitude to work.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent human relations factors of secondary schools’ administrators affect teachers’ attitude to work.
Specifically, the purpose of the study was to find out:
- If administrators’ level of communication influences teachers’ attitude to work.
- Whether administrators willingness to delegate duties does affect teachers’ attitude to work.
- If administrators’ level of instructional supervision affect teachers attitude to work.
- Whether administrators level of staff motivation does influence teachers attitude to work.
- Whether administrators’ level of community relations does affect teachers attitude to work.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were developed as a guide to this study.
- How does principal’s level of communication influence teachers’ attitude to work?
- How does principal’s level of delegation of duties influence teachers’ attitude to work?
- How does the level of motivation given by principals influence teachers’ attitude to work?
- How does the principal’s level of instructional supervision influence teachers’ attitude to work?
- How does the principals’ relation with the community influence teachers’ attitude to work?
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
To achieve the purpose of this study the following hypotheses were formulated
- There is no significant influence of the principals’ level of communication on teachers’ attitude to work.
- There is no significant influence of the principals’ level of delegation of duties on teachers’ attitude to work.
- There is no significant influence of the principals’ level of staff motivation given by principals on teachers’ attitude to work.
- There is no significant influence of the principals’ level of instructional supervision on teachers’ attitude to work.
- There is no significant influence of the principals’ relations with the community on teachers’ attitude to work.
This study is based on the following assumptions that:
- The attitude of teachers towards school work can be influenced by human relations variables as communication, delegations of duties, staff motivation, instructional supervision and community relations of the principals.
- Secondary school teachers vary in their perception of their principals’ human relations.
- Secondary school principals differed in their levels of human relations.
- Teachers can respond to items in the questionnaire used in extracting data for this study.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study is very important at this point in time when human relations approach in administration is considered relevant in day-to-day running of schools to improve work attitude of teachers.
The result of this study is hoped would help teachers to improve on their negative work attitude, since their intrinsic satisfaction in terms of respect, recognition and responsibility would be taken care of by their school administrators. As a result of this, they would be properly informed of school tasks, would be called upon to act and well motivated by the school administrator. By so doing a teacher would show greater commitment to school work, when he knows that his principal gives equal justice for everyone and that there is no favourtism and discrimination.
Again the study would be of particular significance for principals of secondary schools in the study area in particular and Akwa Ibom State in generally, since they would be applying human relations principles in their day-to-day running of schools. For instance, when principals practice shared governance or participatory management by involving the whole staff generally and particularly vice principals in the day-to-day running of the school ended up having dedicated and committed teachers.
Furthermore, it is believed that the result of this study would be of use to students in the secondary schools who would enjoy services of hardworking teachers. The result would improve students’ performance on internal and external examinations as teachers would be wiling to teach extra lessons as a result of proper motivation received from the principals. Students would also benefit from the democratic administrative approach used, as basic human relations principles would be adopted in administration. Accordingly, student leaders (perfect) would be consulted when major decisions are to be taken about them. By so doing, students would be having intrinsic satisfaction within their school environment and therefore remain disciplined and responsible human resource of the school organization.
It is firmly hoped that the study would guide the