This study investigated the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) competencies of library staff in the University of Abuja, FCT and University of Jos, Plateau State.  The objective of the study was to find how competent library staff are in using ICT facilities to do their job.  Five research questions were formulated to guide the study on Areas of work staff use ICT, levels of competence, methods of acquiring competencies hindrances to competency acquisition and strategies to improve the situation. Data relevant to the study was collected using questionnaire design sampling technique.  A total of 136 copies of questionnaire were distributed out of which were rightly completed and returned. Data were analyzed using percentages and mean scores. Findings revealed that many library staff in university libraries perform Microsoft Word based tasks like typing and printing of documents, can provide online searches using internet but cannot perform effective professional library related duties using ICT.  Staff  need ICT competencies in the areas that can assist them handle professional related duties, like internet skills, mastery of library softwares and technical skills. Library staff acquired ICT training mainly through personal practice, on the job training, seminars, conferences and workshops, but preferred training through library schools.  The major problems that hindered ICT competency acquisition among library staff are lack of funding, higher authority not willing to release their staff to go for further training, lack of opportunities, lack of ICT training facilities  and inadequate curriculum content for ICT in the library schools.  Strategies to improve the ICT competencies of library staff are by provision of more ICT facilities in library schools, development of  personal interest by staff to acquire ICT competencies, sponsorship and study grants, study leave  to be granted to staff to go for Competency acquisition trainings, also the authority should be willing to release staff for studies and recruit more staff to reduce work load.  Suggestions on areas for further studies on ICT competencies of library staff were also made.

                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS


Title Page                          –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Approval Page             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certificate Page       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Abstract                  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

List of Tables          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

List of figures      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           viii

Table of Contents     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xi


Background of Study –       –           –           –           –           –           –           1

Statement of the Problem-          –           –           –           –           –           –           7

Purpose of the Study  –              –           –           –           –           –           –           8

Research Questions     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

Significance of the Study –     –       –           –           –           –           –           –          

Scope of Study –         —           –           –           –           –           –           –           9


Conceptual Framework/Theories       –           –           –           –           11

Concept of ICT       –           –           –           –           –           11      

 Concept of Competencies            –           –           –           –           15

Areas of work library staff use ICT        –  –       –           –           20

Levels of ICT Competencies possessed by Library staff  –           25

Methods of acquiring ICT competencies     –           –           –           27

Problems hindering the acquisition of competencies by library staff             –     –           –           –           –           –      –           –           –           –           –             30

Strategies for enhancing ICT competencies      –           33       

Related Empirical Studies     –           –           –           –           36

Summary of Review of Related Literature-     –           –           –           38


            Research Design               –           –           –           –           40

            Area of the Study       –           –    –           –           –           –           40      

            Population of the Study        –           –           –           –           41

            Sample and Sampling Technique           –           –           –           –           41

            Instrument for Data collection –              –           –           –           –           42

            Validation of the Instrument  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

            Method of Data Collection     –          –           –           –           –           43

            Method of Data Analysis           –           –           –           –           43


            Research Question 1   –         –           –           –           –           –           45      

            Research Question 2     –           –           –           –           –           –           46

            Research Question 3   –    –           –           –           –           –           49

            Research Question 4   –  –           –           –           –           –           50

            Research Question 5   –    –           –           –           –           –           –           51

            Summary of finding the Study-            –           –           –           –           52


            Discussion of Findings         –           –           –           –           –             54

            Implication of the Study              –           –           –           –             58

            Recommendations      –         –           –           –           –           –             60

            Suggestion for Further Research      –           –           –           –             60

            Limitations of the Study        –           –           –           –           –             61

            Conclusion    –           –           –           –           –           –             61

REFERENCES                 –           –           –           –           –           –             63

APPENDIX A: LSICTC QUESTIONNAIRE           –           –             71     


Tables                                                                                                                                     Pages                                                                                                 

  1. ICT related duties                                                                                 45
  2. Level of ICT Skills                                                                               46
  3. Level of web skills                                                                                47
  4. Level of technical skills                                                                             48
  5. Methods through which  library staff acquired ICT competencies        49       
  6. Preferred methods of ICT competency training                                  49
  7. Problems hindering the acquisition of ICT competencies           50
  8. Strategies to improve staff ICT competencies                                 51                                                              



Background of the Study

The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities in performing library functions is becoming very useful in the Universities because it makes service delivery to users faster and more efficient.  ICT provides speedy, accurate and precise information; it also has flexibility of usage by different users. With the presence of ICT facilities like the World Wide Web, and Internet connectivity, individuals can access information from unlimited sources.  It also gives users opportunity to work at their own pace and according to their own needs. As noted by Adebisi (2009), in Hinderson (1992), ICT in libraries ensures speedy and easy access to information from unlimited sources. 

The term Information and Communication Technology (ICT) evolved from Information Technology (IT). Whereas Information Technology is used to refer to the latest trend and devices that enhance information processing and usage, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the other hand is used to represent the process or act of exchanging or sharing information using the existing technological facilities. Nwachukwu (2005) defines ICT as a device or tool that allows for the collection, storage, processing or the communication of information.  It is a kit or equipment used for capturing, processing, storing and accessing information. (Ekoja, 2007).  ICT devices or equipment which are used to acquire or impart information or knowledge are seemingly endless.  They include calculators, photocopiers, computer related devices etc.  Although ICT devices are many, for this project work, the emphasis is on computer related ICT devices.

The benefits of ICT in libraries generally and university libraries in particular are innumerable.  Chisenga (1995) acknowledges that ICT applications improve service delivery in libraries and allied institutions responsible for information provision.  Most library functions such as, Acquisition, Cataloguing and Classification, Reference services, previously handled manually are now performed electronically using ICTs. This has helped to reduce time spent on

doing the jobs and with less mistakes.   Nwalo (2000) lists some of the benefits of ICT to libraries as: being able to automate technical services; to provide efficient references and information services; to network operations such as cataloguing, authority control, interlibrary loans and International bibliographic project.  These functions become faster and less cumbersome to perform with the help of ICT facilities.  Ajayi (2001) describes a library transformed into a new information service unit, providing electronic cataloging, On-line Public Access Catalogue (OPAC), electronic acquisition and serials control, electronic inter-library loan and electronic circulation functions

The University library which has long been recognized as ‘the heart’ of every academic institution is one place where the benefits of ICT are prodigious.   As the centre of intellectual activities of the university, it has an important role to play to make sure adequate information materials are provided and that adequate assistance is given by the library staff to ensure that the information needs of the staff, students and researchers of the university are met. Modern ICT facilities such as internet, can enable the university library provide content and information dissemination by means such as electronic thesis and dissertations, which students and researchers can benefit from millions of pages of relevant information on the web.

Edoka (2000) summarized some functions of the university libraries where the application of ICTs is imperative for better accomplishment.  They are as follows:

  1. to provide information materials required for the academic programme of the parent institution
  1. to provide research information resources in consonance with the needs of faculty and research students
  1. to provide information resources for recreation and for personal self development of users.
  1. To cooperate with other libraries at appropriate level for improved information services.
  1. To provide specialized information services to appropriate segments of the wide community

Following Edoka’s summary, the areas of library functions seem probably the aspects ICT resources can be employed to an advantage to improve the services of university libraries.

In recognition of the importance of ICT in the university library services with regards to the need for effective and efficient service, many universities with the assistance from the federal government have struggled to bring ICT facilities to their libraries. The Federal government of Nigeria through the National Universities Commission (NUC), The Educational Trust Fund (ETF) as well as individual universities’ efforts, has made ICT facilities available in some of the university libraries which Abuja and Jos are beneficiaries. Obviously, the provision of these facilities must have involved the expenditure of a huge amount of money. However, to successfully exploit the ICT facilities for full benefits, the library staff are the indispensable intermediary between the library materials and users.  As a result, they must be able to use the facilities effectively.  With the ICT facilities, the professional librarians, para-professionals and other staff working in the two university libraries who are the custodian and purveyors of information are challenged with new information to store, process and disseminate.  The implication is that the library staff who are at the forefront of information provision in these university libraries must possess adequate ICT competencies to be able to maximize the facilities to full benefits.  Abdulganry (2000) points out that the new information technology cannot be fully exploited if there is no adequate level of ICT competencies among the library staff.  Given this, staff working in university libraries are now expected to be aware of and capable of using and demonstrating emerging Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). They must be competent in the use of some basic ICT packages like the MS Office, Online databases, internet searches etc.  Similarly, Ikpaahindi (1999) advocates skills acquisitions requirement in the areas of knowledge of computer, how it functions; imputing and retrieval of information from it,… ability to organize and use ICT based resources. It is therefore pertinent for university library staff to develop the required competencies in the area of ICT to augment the traditional library services. They must develop expertise in and establish programme in knowledge search and management support of clienteles’ needs.

Competence is viewed as demonstrating the knowledge, skills, experience and attributes necessary to carry out a defined function effectively.  It is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities at a level of expertise sufficient to be able to perform appropriately a given task in a work place. Wojtezak (2000) defines competence in generic term as possession of satisfactory level of relevant knowledge and acquisition of a range of skills that include interpersonal and technical components at a certain point in the educational process. Such knowledge and skill are necessary to perform the tasks that reflect the scope of professional practices.  It is a combination of theoretical and practical experience that makes an individual able and willing to take the right decision in daily working environment.

ICT competencies of library staff could therefore be viewed to be those relevant skills and knowledge to be acquired by those working in the library to be able to fully exploit information search, retrieval, and deliver using electronic format. The library staff working in the University of Abuja and Jos libraries are expected to possess the technique for gathering, processing and disseminating information to users via the electronic format or skills required to effectively source information stored in electronic format, such as basic computer operating skills, internet and electronic document search skills and also storage and information skills. They should also be competent in the use some of library software packages that can enable them handle the professional technical operations in the library like cataloguing, classification and to generate user databases.  For this research therefore, competencies and skills will be used interchangeably.

The University of Abuja library was established in 1988, to support teaching, learning and research programmes of the university. In addition to the main library located at the main campus, the university operates three branch libraries, namely: Law library, Agriculture library, Veterinary and the Medical libraries. All the branch libraries are administered from the main campus and their services were performed manually until 2005 when ICT was introduced into the library. This has made it possible to provide some of the services online. Through the Education Trust Fund (ETF) project and effort of the university, the library has acquired seventy (70) computer systems. It has an e-Library with sixty (60) sets of computers fully internet ready; a server where staff, researchers, undergraduate and postgraduate students use the internet facilities for their studies and also printing services are provided for users. The library through the Nigerian Universities’ Commission (NUC) virtual library subscribes to some foreign journal databases like the AGORA, HINARY, DOAJ, AJOL and Bioline International. These e-resources are made available to their users online via the library’s e-library laboratory. It is currently embarking on online cataloguing of its materials using Library of Congress free database; generating user database for circulation using the GLASS software. These ICT resources are essential to services without which library users are not assisted satisfactorily to meet their needs.  The e-library laboratory is managed by Higher Library Officer who only has ICT knowledge while the circulation, cataloguing and classification units are headed by professional librarians.  The unit heads and some para-professional staff were given On-the-Job training to use LC database and GLASS softwares.

The University of Jos library started in 1975 at the same time with the university with a mission, just like every other academic library, to provide services to support academic activities of the parent institution. It has two libraries, the main campus library and mini campus library all with ICT facilities. Before the introduction of ICT into the library system, all the operations and services in the library were carried out manually. At present, the university library has two ICT laboratories with internet and printing facilities.  It provides free internet services to their staff and student users.  Also there is a wireless laboratory at the main campus library where users with their personal computers browse. The ICT department of the library is headed by a systems librarian who is a senior staff, a programmer, system technician and other junior staff who are expected to assist the users. Organization of functions in the University of Jos library is subject based and all the functions are provided by the aid of ICT facilities.   The manual catalogues are being replaced by online catalogue (OPAC), also the library subscribe to many electronic journals and books. The university library provides word processing services to their users, that is, typing project work for students using the Microsoft Word. The university library also embarks on digitization of their thesis and dissertations, both retrospective and current ones, and it is hosted on the university’s website.