1.1     Background of the Study

One of the main objectives of any organization is to provide goods and services to the general public.

Organizations perform these important roles through the proper utilization of human and material/resources available within the organization. In order to perform these crucial roles in the organization, there is need to train and develop the human skills of the organization.

Above all, the world is dynamic and in order to keep abreast with the changes in the organizational environment, in-service training and developments has become imperative. In civil services, it is believed that, it is immaterial installing computers in the ministries when most of the typist have not been trained on how to use them. This emphasizes more on the need to train and retrain these typist for them to be computer literate in order to make effective use of the computers for further productivity.

In view of the changing operating environment and these introduced technological developments, the human resources must change to keep space with the changes of our time.

There must be a deliberate training of men and women for new tasks and for new patterns of behaviour. There should also be constant orientation and re-orientation of training for high productivity.

According to Rac (2001), in-service training is on the job or off-the job training that is designed and performed to help an individual or group to learn to perform a task much effectively. In-service training is given to new employees so that they can quickly become part of the organization and start contributing meaningfully to its success. Hence, the training is also given to existing employees to help re-orientate them on major changes in the organization.

In-services training according to Akinyele (1992), means “specific learning activities which are job oriented and are directed towards the improvement of the job holders present and future on the job performance and contribution towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. Stoner (1982), sees in-service training as “the teaching of technical statistics to non-managerial personnel”. As a matter of fact, staff training is the major concern of the management at all levels and line managers are responsible for identifying the in-service training needs of their staff.

It is an obvious fact that the major problem that plagues this country’s development pace and low level of productivity is the death of trained personnel/manpower.

According to Richard L. Meier (1972), “at any moment in its course, every human society that possesses a pond of knowledge which is the residue of accumulated experience of prior generation in the society as well as of other societies from which it may have learned or borrowed”. Naturally, this ponds of knowledge has the property of growing and increasing overtime as long as the society maintain itself, it was also emphasized that knowledge itself deals with both a comprehension of environment forces and an understanding of interpersonal relationship with framework of customs that have been mutually accepted. The application of this collective wisdom therefore tends to maintain the unity of the society, the risk of obsolesces. Health is wealth so said the adage, to maintain the society, good health must be assured, and the work has to be done through human resources for overall benefit of the larger society, especially in the health sector.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Bulletin (1998), death rate is increasing along with infant mortality, complications of pregnancy which occurred in over 15 – 20 women in the world. The major killer or crippling childhood diseases like; malaria, diarrhea, measles, malnutrition, tuberculosis are increasing in Africa.

Chief Augustine Adebayo (1982), while writing on inadequate in-service training on civil service contends that much progress has not been made in the variance of civil service of Nigeria towards training and staff development during the past decade and it is again this background that the present day Nigeria places emphasis on man power training in all major aspect of our socio-economic and political endeavors at the national, state and the civil service levels. Upon all these, the scale of in-services training is still falling far short of the normal requirements of being efficient in terms of job performance. In-service training and development therefore veritable tools for enhancing efficiency and higher productivity.

To tackle the above problem, there is need for adequate training of manpower resources for productivity; this is therefore the study of this research work.

1.2     Statement of Problem

The failure of the first and second development plans of Nigeria according to Adebayo were partly attributed to inadequate and lack of trained manpower to handle the development plan as programmed.

Since the country has been experiencing low productivity due to the death of training personnel.

According to Sam Aluku (1984), productivity cannot be increased due to inadequacy of personnel and crude implement of which we are using in civil service. For instance, “Health For By All The Year 2000”, the goal set by the World Health Organization for its member nations called off as it could not be achieved because of manpower, structural inadequacy and lack of material drug, etc.

The problem of this study therefore, is to analyze the inherent disadvantages that has followed the lack of in-service training of personnel and proper solutions that is rigorously adopted, which would enhance human resource effectiveness, capacity output as well as place the country among the community of industrialized nations with adequate trained wealthy personnel for the improvement of health services generally. In-service have become a sin qua non for higher productivity.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The objectives study are to;

  1. Ascertain the extent to which civil service commission organize in-service trainings and development programmes for the workers.
  2. Examine the extent to which the in-service and development programmes organized by civil service commission have positively influence higher production.
  3. Identify the strategic service areas that generally needs effective training by the civil service commission.
  4. Determine the extent of damage done by inadequate manpower and trainings in the civil service.

1.4     Research Questions

  1. In order to carryout successfully this research work, the researcher raised these few questions below;
  2. To what extent does civil service commission organize in-service training and development for its workers?
  3. To what extent does the in-service training affect the workers positively in relation to high productivity?
  4. What are the hindrances to effective training in the civil service?
  5. What is the level of damages done by inadequate manpower and trainings in the civil service?

1.5     Scope of the Study

The researcher is aware of the existence of other agencies that train staff in Nigeria. It is outside the focus of this study for the researcher to research on other agencies but rather the main focus of this study is to find out more information on civil service training commission. The interest of the study is relevant to staff training and development, the extent of achievement and the extent to which this have helped to improve productivity.

The geographical coverage of the study is Civil Service Commission, Uyo Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria.

1.6     Limitation of the Study

Every human activity has it inherent weakness and strength. As a result, this study owns many boundary of limitations ranging finance, time, lack of adequate corporation from the respondents and logistics were some of the problems the researcher faced in the cause of this study. Consequently, it is obvious that the researcher has some problems limitations during the research work which none is considered as serious as to affect its validity.

1.7     Definition of Terms