THE IMPACT OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION PROGRAMME ON RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN NIGERIA

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THE IMPACT OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION PROGRAMME ON RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN NIGERIA

Chapter one

Introduction

Background to study

Hazell (2009) defined the Green Revolution as the introduction of a package consisting of modern inputs such as improved seed cultivars, fertilizers, and pesticides aimed at enhancing crop production to curb escalating hunger and poverty in Asia. The same challenges of hunger and poverty are still well pronounced in Sub-Saharan Africa to  date,  with  millions of rural people undernourished and a growing urban population suffering from high food prices. In fact, literature from Gaus (2012) suggests that Sub-Saharan African countries exhibit the world’s highest level of food insecurity and also rank lowest globally in terms of agricultural productivity. At the same time, human population has  continued  to  grow  and  Haub  and  Kaneda  (2013) predicted that between now and 2050, the 51 countries of sub-Saharan Africa will add more population (1.3 billion) than any world region. The region’s natural resources are already struggling to sustain the current population as difficult decisions have to be made on how to strike a balance between using these limited resources like land for agricultural and human settlement purposes. Furthermore, the condition of productive land has deteriorated immensely both in terms of quantity and quality due to erosion, overpopulation, overgrazing and global warning thereby promoting food insecurity even more. South Africa is no exception because its food security is only at national level whereas its rural citizens continue to suffer from poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity, with the black community being the most disadvantaged (Hart et al., 2009; Mathole, 2005). In Koch’s (2011) view, the country’s rural food insecurity crisis is mainly linked to a lack of food purchasing power caused by poverty, unemployment and more recently, steep increases in food and fuel prices, energy tariffs and interest rates.

This is a common phenomenon in most, if not all, developing countries. The big question therefore is how to strike a balance between the available natural resources and the growing population pressure to ensure food security especially at household level. This paper tries to evaluate if the same technologies adopted during the Green Revolution era could be adopted here in South Africa to enable the nation’s agricultural sector to provide enough food to sustain the ever-rising population. The Bias is towards crop production since the Green Revolution technologies were limited to crop production

 

Statement of problem

Over the years, several agricultural programmeshave been introduced to reduce abject poverty among rural dwellers, mostly farmers, in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Some of these programmes include: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Green revolution, Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), and National Economic Empowerment and Development (NEED), The Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DIFRRI), National Orientation Agency (NOA), National Accelerated Food Production Programme (NAFPP), Green Revolution (GR), Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), etc.

(World Bank, 1993, World Bank, 1995a, World Bank, 1995b; World Bank, 1996; Hashmi and Sial 2007; IFAD 2001), but it seems that these efforts have yielded little or no impact on the rural population, as evident in the literature (Afolayan, 1997). Consequently, the rate of poverty in rural areaskeeps increasing steadily(Diamond, 1999; Handley et al., 2009; Gate 2014).

However, this study limits its scope to Green revolution, which aims at increasing food production for rural dwellers and raising the income level of small scale farmers by making provision for improved seeds, fertilizer, pesticides, credit facilities and infrastructural facilities (Ajayi and Ajala, 1997; Garba, 2000; Akpobo, 2007).The study focuses on its impact on rural dwellers in IsanEkiti, Oye Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Since inception of green revolution in the Nigeria , studies to assess the impact of these provisionson indigenes have never been explored in the literature. Thus, the probability of Agricultural Development Programmesresulting in increased foodstuff for rural dwellers is yet to be ascertained. Moreover, the likelihood of farmers having easy access to improved seeds, pesticides and fertilizer for farming has never been investigated. Equally very essential and related to the foregoing but yet to be examined is the probability of green revolution granting farmers adequate access to credit facilities.

 

Objective of the study

  1. To determine if green revolution Programmes have significantly resulted in increase the need for rural urban migration by farmers in IsanEkiti.
  2. Determine the infrastructural impact of green revolution programme
  3. Determine if green revolution have significantly resulted in the increase in the provision of farm input for farmers for the provision of food crops in IsanEkiti

Research question

  1. does green revolution Programmes have significantly resulted in increase the need for rural urban migration by farmers in IsanEkiti?
  2. What is the infrastructural impact of green revolution programme?
  3. Does green revolution have significantly resulted in the increase in the provision of farm input for farmers for the provision of food crops in IsanEkiti?

 

Significance of the study

Apart from its academic worth to the body of knowledge, this study intends to discover if the existence of Agricultural Development Programmes has actually impacted on the rural population,in respect of rural urban migration and infrastructural facilities.Hunger and poor infrastructural facilities in rural areas have been associated with criminal activities and rural-urban migration(Asiabaka, 2010; Angus, 2010; Aworemi et al., 2011; BBC, 2012; International Monetary Fund, 2013; The Economist, 2014)in many societies. If the problem of food and infrastructural facilities are adequately addressed in rural areas, it could reduce the rate of stealing and rural-urban migration in Nigeria.

Scope of the study

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THE IMPACT OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION PROGRAMME ON RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN NIGERIA

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