IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ENUGU STATE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                            –           –           –           –           –           –        i

Certification                                        –           –           –           –           –           –        ii

Approval Page                                    –           –           –           –           –           –       iii

Dedication                                          –           –           –           –           –           –       iv

Acknowledgments                              –           –           –           –           –           –       v

Table of contents                                –           –           –           –           –           –       vi

List of tables                                       –           –           –           –           –           –       viii

Abstract                                              –           –           –           –           –           –       x

CHAPTER ONE   

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –        1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                   –           –           –           –           –        3

1.3       Objectives of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           –        3

1.4       Research Questions     –           –           –           –           –           –           –        4

1.5       Research Hypotheses              –           –           –           –           –           –        5

1.6       Significance of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –        6

1.7       Scope  of the Study       –           –           –          –            –        6      

1.8       Limitations of the Study         –           –           –           –           –           –        6

1.9       Operational Definition of Key Terms        –           –           –        7         

            References                    

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  •      The Concept of Job Satisfaction  –         –           –           –           –           10
  • Job Satisfaction Theories           –           –           –           –           –           11
  • Dimensions of Job Satisfaction  –           –           –           –           –           17
  • Determinants of Job Satisfaction      –           –           –           –           23

2.5     Model of Job Satisfaction         –           –           –           –           27

2.6     Definition of Organizational Commitment     –        –        –        28

2.7     Types of Employee Commitment                   –        –        –        29

2.8     The Antecedents of Organizational Commitment

(Personal Determinants)    –        –        –        –        –        31

2.9     Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Teachers         34

2.10   Summary Review of Related Literature          –        –        –        –        37

           References

CHAPTER THREE- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research Design           –           –           –           –           –           47       

3.2       Sources of Data     –           –           –           –           –           –           47

3.3       Area of Study              –           –           –           –           –           47

3.4       Description of Research Instruments        –           –           –           48

3.5       Population of the Study               –           –           –           –           49

3.6       Sample Size Determination    –           –           –           –           50

3.7       Validity of the Research  Instrument –              –           –           55

3.8       Reliability of the Research Instrument                 –           –           55     

3.9       Data Treatment Technique(s)     –           –           –           –           57

            References

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1       Questionnaire Distribution       –           –           –           –           60

4.2       Test of Hypotheses       –           –           –           –           74

4.3       Discussion of Results            –           –           –           –           85

            References.

CHAPTER  FIVE

5.1      Summary of major findings     –           –           –           –           89

5.2      Conclusion     –           –           –           –           –           89

5.3      Recommendations               –           –           –           90

5.4       Contributions to Knowledge  –           –           –          –           –           –           90

5.5      Suggested Area for Future Research  –           –           –           92

           Bibliography

           Appendix

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1      Sex Distribution         –           –           –           –           61       

Table 4.2      Marital Status of Respondents          –           –           –           61

Table 4.3      Education Qualification            –           –           –           61

Table 4.4      Class Size                                              –           –           –           –           62

Table 4.5      Years of Experience        –           –           –           –           62

Table 4.6      Respondents Age            –           –           –           –           63

Table 4.7:     Job satisfaction and organizational commitment         –           63

Table 4.8:     Supervision and job satisfaction     –           –           –           64

Table 4.9:     Content of work itself and job satisfaction            –           64

Table 4.10:   Salary and job satisfaction               –           –           –           65

Table 4.11:   Non-financial Benefits/rewards and job performance   –           65

Table 4.12:   Pay and work            –           –           –           –           66

Table 4.13:   Salary Scale and Performance on the Job             –           66

Table 4.14:   Attractive benefit packages and performance on the job          –           67

Table 4.15:   Employee recognition and organizational commitment             –           67

Table 4:16:   Qualification or additional credentials and promotion              –           68

Table 4.17:   Input and employee promotion            –           –           68

Table 4.18:   Tenure and promoting employee           –           –           –           –           69

Table 4.19:   Cordial employee-employer and job satisfaction           –           –           69

Table 4.20:   Employees setting of goal and job satisfaction                         –           –           70

Table 4.21:   Good output of Teachers and school authority                         –           –           70

Table 4.22:   Participative leadership style and employee employer relationship       71

Table 4.23:   Class size and working environment           –           71

Table 4.24:   Learning material and organizational commitment        –           –           72

Table 4.25    Length of period thought and organizational commitment       –           72

Table 4.26:   Clean environment and organizational commitment     –           –           73

Table 4.27:   Age and Employee commitment              –           –           73

Table 4.28:   Gender and organization commitment –             –           74

Table 4.29:   School moral policies and job satisfaction                –           74

Table 4.30:   Condensed outcome of the four question administered for testing hypothesis one                                       –           –           –           –           75

Table  4.31:   Descriptive Statistics    –           –           –           –           76

Table 4.32:   Condensed outcome of the four questions administered for    

Testing    hypothesis two                       –           –           –           –           78

Table 4.33    Descriptive Statistics      –           –           –           –           78

Table 4.34:   Condensed outcome of the four question administered for testing      hypothesis three                                     –           –           –           –           80

Table 4.35    Descriptive Statistics                   –           –           –           81

Table 4.36:   Condensed outcome of four question administered testing

hypothesis four                                      –           –           –           –           82

Table 4.37    Descriptive Statistics           –           –           –           –           82

Table 4.38:  Condensed outcome of the four questions administered for testing hypothesis five                                       –           –           –           –           84

Table 4.39   Descriptive Statistics      –           –           –           –           84

                                                             ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research work is to highlight the impact of job satisfaction on organization commitment among secondary school teachers in Enugu State.  Specifically, the study aimed to pursue the following objectives : to analyse the relationship between job satisfaction and organisational commitment among secondary school teachers in Enugu state, to determine the extent to which regular payment and increase of salary affect job satisfaction, to examine the degree to which promotion impacts on organizational commitment, to evaluate the extent to which employee-employer relationship enhances job satisfaction, to examine the relationship between working environment and organisational commitment among secondary school teachers in Enugu state. The study had a population size of 1,462, out of which a sample size of 314 was realized using Taro Yamene Formula at 5% error to tolerance and 95% level of confidence . Instrument used for data collection was primarily questionnaire and interview. The total numbers of 314 copies of the questionnaire were distributed while 304 copies were returned. The descriptive research design was adopted for the study.  Five hypotheses were tested using Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient, chi-square (X2), and Z-test statistical tools. The findings indicate that there was a significant relationship between job satisfaction and organisational commitment. There was positive effect of payment and increase of salary on job satisfaction. There was significant impact of promotion on organizational commitment. There was positive relationship between working environment and organizational commitment. The study concluded  that teachers of secondary schools in Enugu state cherish promotion, improvement of salaries, welfare package and conditions of services, however these desires of teachers were far-cry. The study recommends that to ensure job satisfaction and organizational commitment among employees, there should be proactive measures which among others are increase in salary scale, best teacher of the year, conducive environment and the preparedness on the school administration to beef up the needed job satisfaction. 

                                             CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

An organization is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals. An effective organization will make sure there is a spirit of cooperation, sense of commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence. People are not only an indispensable component but also an integral part of the sphere of influence. To understand the critical importance of people in the organization is to recognize that the human element and the organization are synonymous. A well-managed organization usually sees an average worker as the fundamental source of its   improvement (Adeyeme, 2004:89)

In recent years, there has been an increase in publications pertaining to organizational commitment and job satisfaction amongst various occupational groups. Evidence attesting to this is the vast array of literature related to antecedents and consequences of both organizational commitment and job satisfaction among employees(Aamodt, 2007:168 and Bagraim, 2006:126 ).

Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been found to be linked to increase in productivity and organizational effectiveness (Buitendach and de Wite, 2005:27).It is further linked to have an influence on whether employees will have a propensity to remain with the organization and maintain higher levels commitment. This explains why Yousef (2008:184) notes that job satisfaction and organisational commitment are inversely related to such withdrawal behaviours as tardiness, absenteeism and staff turnover

Locke and Lathan (1999:146) see job satisfaction as pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. Job satisfaction is as a result of employee’s perception of how well their job provides those things that be can viewed as important. In the educational sector, teachers generally cherish promotion, improvement in salaries and welfare packages as well as good conditions of service. Collectively, these strengthen organizational commitment.

In Nigeria, Borishade (2004:81) argues that aforementioned conditions are rare to come by, hence, there is a problem. This problem could be traced to the transitions the educational system is undergoing. It has really passed through different periods ranging from operations of the system by British administrators to ownership of schools by religious bodies. At these two periods, teachers were held at a very high esteem, they were regularly paid, promoted, sent on training and retired with dignity. At this period too they were conceived as role  models, because of the state of the nation which was then seen as backward, antiquity and primitive, schools were few, pupils were few and teachers were equally few and therefore management were easier. Again the missionary had direct sponsorship from their mother country, therefore provision of infrastructural facilities and maintenance of teachers was adequate. Over the years, it was obvious that the introduction of European education which carried with it the European values was relegated to the background African values and culture knowing that education is the major vehicle through which society transmits, propagates values and culture in any society.

The ownership and management still in the hands of missionaries raised a lot of agitation in the minds of Africans which led to the indigenous ownership and management of schools, that is taking away schools from the missionaries, this move intensified after the Nigerian civil war since most of the missionaries have gone, the government of the day naturally took over the ownership and management of schools both to harmonize the operation and curriculum and to achieve the expected goal. The end of Nigeria civil war there was an increase in the awareness of the need for education more children went to school, increase in the number of schools and the number of teachers, but with paucity of resources for provision of infrastructural facilities and general maintenance of schools and teachers. It was difficult to keep schools to the standard they were during the missionaries. Since the management of small unit can never be compare to management of larger unit it becomes more complex and difficult to manage and maintain teachers adequately as it was during missionary era

This state was further buttressed by Evans (2005:417) who identifies factors such as teacher’s low salaries and low status, growing class sizes and changes in the education system as causes of the endemic dissatisfaction within the profession. It is on this background that the research seeks to examine the impact of   job satisfaction on organisational commitment among secondary school teachers in Enugu State.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ENUGU STATE