IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH ON UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This research’s main objective is to study the dynamic relationship between population growth and unemployment in Nigeria. The study is of utmost importance as it addresses a strategic aspect of the economy and also considering the fact that the country has been experiencing a slow growth rate and a severe decline in development.  A regression model is used to describe the statistical relationship between population growth and unemployment. It is hypothesized that population growth has a strong impact on unemployment in Nigeria. It is assumed that a positive relationship exists between population growth and unemployment. A highly significant result was obtained after a simple regression was carried out which shows that population plays a role in the rise of unemployment in Nigeria which implies that a rise in population growth leads to a rise in unemployment. Many reasons have been attributed as to why population growth is on the rise and how it proportionately affects unemployment. The major reasons for a rise in population include increase in birth rate, socio-cultural beliefs and improvement in welfare and medical facilities. Although the positive effects of population cannot be overlooked, it is also important to note that its negative effects highly outweigh its positives. When there is high population, the country tends to exceed its carrying capacity, which means that the country can no longer support its large population in terms of resources as well as job opportunities. The problem of unemployment is very alarming and demands urgent attention and solutions as its effects are very severe. Some of its effect include; increase in income inequality, rise in criminal activities like Boko-Haram and decline in the general standard of living. It is expected that everyone on all grounds including individuals, agencies and government to take a stand and play important roles in stabilizing population growth as well as minimizing unemployment in the  country in order to improve the country’s growth and development on all grounds.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The main objective of this paper is to study and analyze the relationship between unemployment and population growth in Nigeria. Unemployment and population are two solid indicators to a country’s development and growth. According to the economics help organization,  Unemployment can be explained as the number of people or people in the workforce who are willing, able and capable to work but do not have a paid job. Unemployment is mostly used as a tool to measure the health of the economy. The unemployment rate is often used as a measure to unemployment. Population on the other hand is defined according to Michael Todaro as the number of individuals living in a country. This research aims to analyze the correlation between population and unemployment and how a rise in unemployment affects the growth and development of the country. 

BACKGROUND STUDY

BRIEF HISTORY OF POPULATION GROWTH TREND IN NIGERIA

After the independence in 1960, a successful population census was carried out in Nigeria in 1964, which an estimated population of 55.6 million people was taken into account. Since then, it became obvious that Nigeria’s population was leading to a rapid population growth. In 1991, a population census was held and the country’s population increased to an approximated 88.5 million people. The analysis helped the National Development Planning to gain more insight and enable them to improve and develop more on their policies and planning (Evans, 2011). The UNDP reported in 2007 that the Nigerian population continuously increased at 3% per annum with birth rate of 40 per 1,000 and also a death rate of 15 per 1,000 (Gideon, 2016). It was also estimated that an educated Nigerian woman gives birth to a lesser number of 3 children compared to an average Nigerian woman who gives birth to 6 children in her lifetime (Evans, 2011). From analysis of the past census and reports, it is evident that the population has been rapidly growing at a high rate of 250% from 1964 to present. This makes it problematic to match the population growth rate and development of the country (Evans, 2011).