IMPACT OF PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE ON PERFORMANCE OF TRANSCORP HILTON HOTEL ABUJA, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

Problem solving technique is a veritable tool for today’s management to utilize for optimal result. This research work used the Impact of Problem Solving Technique on Performance of Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria as it investigates on skills in problem solving on customer satisfaction, evaluate whether there is a significant relationship between decision making styles on employee satisfaction, ascertain the usefulness of brainstorming guide on net profit margin and To assess employees assertiveness and self confidence in achieving profit via problem solving technique. The population size of the organization under study was 320 after the use of a statistical tool called Taro Yamane was used to determine the sample size and questionnaire prepared and administered. The first hypotheses indicates that Skill and Customer satisfaction were positively and significantly related (x2=17.96**> x2 Tab=9.487). This means if the Skill is effective, it will have a great impact on Customer Satisfaction. Hence, we reject the null hypothesis and accepted the alternate which state that “Skill have significance on customer satisfaction in Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria” the second hypotheses indicate that Decision Making styles and Employee satisfaction were positively and significantly related (x2=15.78**> x2 Tab=9.487), This means if decision making is effective, it will have a great impact on Employee satisfaction. Hence, we reject the null hypothesis and accepted the alternate which state that “There is a significant relationship between decision making style of problem solving and employees  satisfaction at Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria”,  the third hypotheses indicate that there is a correlation  between Brainstorming Guide aids return on Investment as they were related (r=0.551**, p<0.000). This shows that Brainstorming can contribute or aid Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria’s return on investment. Hence, we reject the null hypothesis and accepted the alternate which state that ‘Brainstorming guide in problem solving does aids return on investment of Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria and  the last hypotheses show that there is a tie Correlation between Assertiveness/Self confidence and Profitability as they were related (r=0.614**, p<0.000). Hence, we reject the null hypothesis and accepted the alternate which state that ‘Assertiveness and self confidence in problem solving impact positively on the profitability of Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria. The research findings which show that problem solving technique skills impact on customer satisfaction in the organization, there is significant relationship between decision making styles of problem solving and employees satisfaction, brainstorming guide in problem solving does aids return on investment and Assertiveness and self confidence in problem solving does impact positively on the profitability. The following recommendation put was put forth, that Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria and other hospitality firms must imbibe the spirit of research in their decision making. The use of haphazard method of decision should be totally disallowed and problem solving technique must be adopted, furthermore, the success of any firms largely depends on their workforce. There should be proper human resource and personnel management efforts. The workers of the firm must be adequately motivated and remunerated to build enhanced performance.  Finally, there should be care and precaution in the application of problem solving technique because of the quantitative analysis that may be involved. A little mistake in the improper utilization of these techniques can lead to organizational failure.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Approval                                                                                                                     ii

Declaration                                                                                                                  iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgment                                                                                                        v

Abstract                                                                                                                      vi

Table of Content                                                                                            vii

List of Table                                                                                                        viii

Test of Hypotheses Table                             ix                                                                                                                                                        

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study                                                                               1
  2. Statement of the Problem                                                                               4
  3. Objectives of the Study                                                                                  5
  4. Research Questions                                                                                         6
  5. Research Hypotheses                                                                                      6
  6. Significance of the Study                                                                               7
  7. Limitations of the Study                                                                                 7
  8. Scope and Delimitation of Study                                                                   8

1.9       Conceptual Definition of Terms                                                      8

            References                                                                                                       12

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE

  •       Conceptual Framework                                                        13       
  • Historical Framework on Performance                                    13
  • Concept of Performance Management                                        14       
  • Concept of Organization                                                                                15
  • What is Performance Management                                                 16
  • Performance Evaluation and Motivation                               18
  •  Performance Problem Solving                                                                     19

2.2.1        Problem Solving                                                                     21      

  •     The Problem at Transcorp Hitlton Hotel Abuja, Nigeria       21
  •  Theoretical Framework                                                                                21
  • Gestalt Theory                                                                                 21

2.3.2         Performance Theory: Understanding Theories                  24

2.3.2.1     Goal Theory                                                                               24

2.3.2.2      Control Theory                                                                        25

2.3.2.3      Social Cognitive Theory                                                            25

2.3.2.4      Reward Management                                                               26  

2.4            problem solving technique                                                            26

2.4.1        Strategic Reward Characteristics and Critical Evaluation          26   

2.4.2        Recurring Problems at Transcorp Hilton Hotel                            27

2.5           Empirical Review                                                         34 

2.6          Summary of the Literature Review                                            35  

2.7          Critique of the Literature Reviewed                         35

   References                                                                                                        38

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  •       Research Design                                                           40
  • Sources of Data                                                               40

3.2.1    Primary Data                                                                        40

3.2.2    Secondary Data                                                                    41              

  •       Area of study                                                                      41
  •  Population of the Study                                                                  41
  • Sampling Techniques                                                                        42
  • Sample Size                                                                                                      42
  •  Allocation of Sample Size                                                          44
  • Research Instrument for  Data Collection                                       45
  •  Questionaire                                                                            45
  • Oral Interview                                                                                                    45
  • Observation                                                                                 46
  • Questionaire Administration and Collection                                    46
  • Methods of Analyzing the Data                                                                    46
  • Decision Rule                                                                                                 47

3.12     Validity of Research instrument                                                    47

3.13      Reliability of Research Instrument                                                48

             References                                                                                                     50

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Data Presentation                                                                                            51
  • Testing of Hypothesis                                                                                     68
  • Discussions of Findings                                                                                  73                   

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES

  • Summary of Findings                                                                                     74
  • Conclusion                                                                                                      74
  • Recommendations                                                                                          75
  • Suggestion for further studies                                                    76

Bibliography                                                                                                   78

Appendixes                                                                                                     81

Questionnaires                                                                                                 82

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1           Distribution of the Population of the Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja           42

Table 3.1           Using the Simple Frequency Table                          48

Table 4.1.1:       Questionnaire Distribution and Responses                              51

Table 4.1.2         on Gender Distribution of the Respondents                      52

Table 4.1.3        on Quallification Distribution of the Respondents                                     52

Table 4.1.4         on Position Level of the Respondents                           53

Table 4.1.5         on the Income of the Respondents                                      53

Table 4.1.6        on the Time Spent by the Respondents                                                       54

Table 4.1.7        Skills are Usefull in Problem Solving                54

Table 4.1.8         Skills have Challenges in the Course of applying it in Problem Solving    55

Table 4.1.9         Organisation needs to develop her Employees in Building

 Skills towards Problem Solving                       56                       

Table 4.1.10       Skills in Problem Solving have Significance on Customers

 Satisfaction in the Organisation                                                                   56                                                             

Table 4.1.11       Training and Development is a veritable Management Approach  needed by Personnel for Problem Solving in the Organisation                    57

Table 4.1.12       Decision making Styles creates an avenue for Solution to Problem of  An Organisation                                                 58

Table 4.1.13        Management of Organization must encourage Flexible Decision making to solve on the spot Problems                              58

Table 4.1.14      Decision making styles is rigid at one time and flexible at the other, so as to balance the varied employee diversity and help encourage their satisfaction                                                                                            59

Table 4.1.15      Decision Making Style is perceived to be effective and efficient in problem solving in the organization                         60

Table 4.1.16      Decision making styles adopted by the management of the

Organisation affect employee satisfaction                                                    61

Table 4.1.17      Decision making styles aids employee satisfaction                                       62              

Table 4.1.18      Brainstorming guide does aid problem solving in the organization             62

Table 4.1.19      Brainstorming guide is useful technique in problem solving

  needed at the various departments of the organization                                63

Table 4.1.20      Brainstorming guide in problem solving seemly aid net

Profit margin of the organization                                                     64 

Table 4.1.21      Employee’s assertiveness and self-confidence are needed in

Problem solving                                                                                             65

Table 4.1.22      Employee’s assertiveness and self-confidence in problem

solving, leads to customers repeat patronage                                                 66

Table 4.1.23       Employee’s assertiveness and self-confidence enable management

 to ascertain feedback from problem solving action(s) and as well

from customer’s complaint(s)                                                                        67

Table 4.1.24      Employee’s assertiveness and self-confidence in problem solving

  positively impact on profitability                                                                  68

TEST OF HYPOTHESES TABLES

Table 1              Chi-Square analysis                                               69

Table 2              Chi-Square analysis                                                                 70

Table 3:             Product Moment Correlation Analysis                          71

Table 4:             Product Moment Correlation Analysis                               72

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study

Problem solving is a constant feature of life, in individual(s), team(s)/group(s) and organization(s) etc. According to Armstrong (2012:495), who opine problem solving as the process of analysis and understanding a problem, diagnosing its causes and deciding on solution that solves the problem and prevents it being repeated. We will often have to react to problems as they arise in our homes and work places, but as far as possible a proactive approach is desirable, involving anticipating potential problem(s) and dealing with them in advance by taking preventive actions using the normal approach to problem solving steps, which requires logical creative thinking; such a logical approach is desirable but is not always easy because the situations where problems have to be solved are often messier with conflicting evidence(s), lack of data, political and emotional issues affecting those involved. In the event where it is possible to apply neat logical sequential methods, the principles of getting and analyzing what information is available, considering alternative solutions and making the best choice based on the evidence, and analysis of the context and an assessment of the possible consequences, remain the same. However, the purpose and reasons for problem solving technique is to ensure that if properly analyzed, such a mistake does not repeat again. Drucker (1995) cited in Armstrong (2012), points out that when trying to understand, the root causes of a problem you may have to start with an opinion based on events and facts. He assert that opinions are perfectly good starting point as long as they are brought out into the open at once and tested against reality and subjected  to hypothesis test analytically. Collaborating Follett’s (1924), law of the situation cited in Armstrong (2012) states that fact and event should rule in the end. According to Armstrong (2012:494), to improve problem solving technique skills is necessary to improve your analytical abilities, be creative, be simplistic and focus on implementation. He postulated twelve (12) steps of problem solving technique to include

  1. Define the situation
  2. Specify objectives
  3. Develop hypotheses
  4. Get the facts
  5. Analyze the facts
  6. Identify possible course of action
  7. Evaluate alternatives courses of action
  8. Weigh and decide
  9. Decide on the objective.
  10. Adopt a “means-end” approach where appropriate.
  11. Plan implementation and
  12. Implement

The bottom line is that there is no problem but only opportunity in other words  one should apply positive thinking to problem solving to change such issues to opportunities. Armstrong (2012:328), assert that the aim of performance, but which performance? Its scope is sometimes perceived as only extending to individuals and their managers. This is often described as a “performance management system” however while it may be assumed that using performance management process to improve individual performance will inevitably improve team and organizational performance this cannot be left to chance. Performance management should be applied to examine the organizations. Shield (2007:21) observed that: individuals result flow into group results, which in turn contribute to organization-wide results, but he also pointed out that collective behavior both arises from and shapes individual behavior. In this study, they are clearly interconnected, organizational performance practices will be considered in line with the topic of the study, which sees the organization as an entity. As Gheorghe and Huck (2007:19) cited in Armstrong (2012:328), noted, “Actively manager performance is simply running entire business as one entity. It’s a continuous cycle of planning, executing, measuring results and planning the next actions. In the context of a larger strategic initiative, that means of continuous improvements. The aim of managing organizational performance is to increase organizational capability for the capacity of an organization to function effectively. Armstrong (2012:328), it is about the ability of an organization to guarantee high levels of performance, achieve its purpose (sustained competitive advantage in a commercial business), deliver results and, importantly meet the needs of the stakeholders. It is concerned with the organization as a system and in line with the belief expressed by Coens and Jenkins (2012) cited in Armstrong (2012:328), that to focus on the overall “system” of the organization yields better results than trying to get individual employee to improve their performance.

Transcorp Hilton Hotel Abuja is a 670 room, 5star Hotel that provides luxury accommodation; Exotic cuisine fully equipped meeting rooms and leisure facilities to business travelers and tourists from all over the world. It is a global multinational corporation (MNC). However like all other MNC’s has its own problems which borders on equal employment opportunities, reward management, job satisfaction and stakeholder satisfaction.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

IMPACT OF PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE ON PERFORMANCE OF TRANSCORP HILTON HOTEL ABUJA, NIGERIA