1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Park (2007) has it that the term public health came into a general use around 1840. It rose from the need to protect the “public” from the spread of communicable diseases. Later, it appeared in 1848 in the name of a law, the public health Act in England to crystallize the efforts, organized by society to protect, promote and restore the people’s health.
In 1920 C.E.A Winslow a former professor of public health at Yale University gave the oft-quoted definition of public health. The world organization Expert committee on public health administration adapting Winslow’s earlier definition, has defined it as “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health and efficiency through organized community efforts for the sanitation of the environment, the control of communicable infections, the education of the individual in personal hygiene, the organization medical and nursing services for early diagnosis and preventive treatment of diseases and the development of social machinery to ensure for every individual a standard of the living adequate for the maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as to enable every citizen to realize his birth right of health and longevity. (Park, 2007).
However the focus of a public health intervention is to prevent and manage diseases, injuries and other health conditions, through surveillance of caser and the promotion of healthy behaviours, communities and environments. Public health also aims at improving the quality of life through prevention and treatment of diseases including mental health. This is done through there surveillance of casers and health indicators and through the promotion of healthy behaviours. Common washing and breart feeding. Delivery of vaccinations, prevention and distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.
The world health organization (WHO) is the international agency that co ordinates and acts on global public health issues. Although, most countries have their own government public health agencies, sometime known as ministries of health, to respond to domestic health issues. For example in the United State , the frontline of public health initiatives are state and local health Departments. The United States public health service (PHS), led by the centers for diseases control and prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, are involved with several international duties. Activities, in addition, to their national duties. The history of public health care dearly shows there global effort to improve health care for all. However in modern –day medicine, real, measureable argue that their lack of improvement in due to in effective methods that are being implemented. In 1988, the institute of medicine (IOM) released an assessment of the U.S. public health system titled, the further of public Health. The report described the network of country, state and national public health agencies as being in “disarray” and promoted a national discussion about the state of public health in the country. Questioning the ability of existing public health system to provide essential services report sought to establish a comprehensive framework delineating the “three fundamental purposes of public health. These purpose include” assessment, policy development and assurance.
Lucas and Gilles (2003) stated that public health requires a multidisciplinary team of public health workers and professional that plays an important functions in diseases prevention.
[1.2 Statement of the Problem
The researcher having work through the land mass of Eastern Obolo local government area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria have seen tremendous works of government and other non-governmental agencies towards improving health sector to promote the health of individual, families and communities on prevention and control of diseases. Despite their tremendous effort, not much impact has been seen in the communities.
The incessant, prevalent and distribution of diseases on the population of the citizens in terms of risk factors and disease distribution keeps increasing periodically.
Following the above observation, the researcher was worried and moved as an undergraduate of public health to make findings on the topic public health care practices, impact on effective prevention and control of diseases in Eastern Obolo local government area, Akwa Ibom State. It is also the belief of the researcher that at the conclusion of this work, it will foster the need to embrace public health practices as a broad discipline which will culminate the, epidemiological approach and techniques to adopt public health as tools for effective prevention and control of diseases within the territory.
1.3 Broad Objectives
The broad objectives of this research work is to scientifically examine public health care practices, impact on effective prevention and control of diseases in Eastern Obolo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State.
1.4 Specific Objective
The specific objectives of this study upon which every discussion revolve are
- To examine the roles of public health officers towards effectives prevention and control of diseases.
- To determine the prevalent rate of diseases in relation to prevention and control of diseases.
- To Examine the compliance level of modern component of public health by using holistic approach.
1.5 Research Question
What is the impact of public health officer toward effective prevention and control of diseases?
What is the prevalent rate of diseases in relation to prevention and control diseases Eastern Obolo?
What is the compliance level of the modern component of public health?
1.6 Significant of the Study
The researcher knowing that access to health and public health initiatives are difficult challenges in developing nations. In line to the above, the researcher place significance study on the need of the indigene of Eastern Obolo adopting and practicing common public health initiatives including promoting hand washing and breast feeding, delivery of vaccinations suicide prevention and distribution of condoms aim at controlling the spread of sexually, transmitted diseases etc. Park (2007) also highlighted that the broad foundation of public health includes, clean water, clean surrounding, wholesome condition of houses, control of offensive trades are common public health practices.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this study, certain terminologies shall be construe have their meaning. Amongst them are
PUBLIC HEALTH: Is the science and art of preventing diseases, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of the society, organization, public and private, communities and individuals.
HEALTH: The widely accepted definition of health in that given by the world health organization (WHO 1948) in the preamble to its constitution that “health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely an absence of diseases or infirmity.
EPIDEMIOLOGY: The consensus definition adopted by the international panel on Epidemiology cited in Amadi (2002) define epidemiology as the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states and events in a defined population and the application of this study to the control of health problems.
DISEASE: The term diseases in an unusual condition of the body resulting from infection, inhalation or ingestion of toxic agents; degenerative conditions of the body and nutritional deficiencies (Dibia 2003).
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: According to Etuk (2007), communicable diseases is an illness due to specified infections agent of its toxic product which arises through transmission of that agent or its products from a reservoirs to a susceptible host either directly from an infected person, animal or indirectly through an inanimate environment.
DISEASE PREVENTION: In medical sense, it means inhibiting the development of a disease before it occurs or measures taken to prevent the establishment or emergence of disease. It is also means measures that geared towards preventing or limiting the occurrence of disease in man (Diba 2003).
DISEASE CONTROL: Involves all the measures designed to prevent or reduce as much as possible, prevalent and consequences of disease (WHO 1984, Health for All).