This study is on impact of public pit toilet and its associated problem. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Udi local government area of Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made heads of department, counselors, senior staff and junior officers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.



  • Background of the study

A pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground. They use either no water or one to three liters per flush with pour-flush pit latrines. When properly built and maintained they can decrease the spread of disease by reducing the amount of human feces in the environment from open defecation. This decreases the transfer of pathogens between feces and food by flies. These pathogens are major causes of infectious diarrhea and intestinal worm infections. Infectious diarrhea resulted in about 0.7 million deaths in children under five years old in 2011 and 250 million lost school days. Pit toilets are the lowest cost method of separating feces from people. A pit toilet generally consists of three major parts: a hole in the ground, a slab or floor with a small hole, and a shelter. The shelter is often known as an outhouse. The pit is typically at least 3 meters (10 feet) deep and 1 m (3.2 feet) across. The World Health Organization recommends they be built a reasonable distance from the house balancing issues of easy access versus that of smell. The distance from groundwater and surface water should be as large as possible to decrease the risk of groundwater pollution. The hole in the slab should not be larger than 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) to prevent children falling in. Light should be prevented from entering the pit to reduce access by flies. This may require the use of a lid to cover the hole in the floor when not in use. When the pit fills to within 0.5 meters (1.6 feet) of the top, it should be either emptied or a new pit constructed and the shelter moved or re-built at the new location. The management of the fecal sludge removed from the pit is complicated. There are both environment and health risks if not done properly A lot of public toilets poses very serious problem to the people of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state and also to other places across the country. The problem of open defecation which some people often refer to as going to the bush or bush shitting has persistently been difficult to address in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state and Nigeria because of the unavailability of good public and home toilets both in the cities and local communities or villages. A lot of people live without proper sanitation in Udi and these people have to decide on daily basis how to organize defecation without feeling ashamed or fear. Pit latrines may or may not be an enjoyable experience to use. Problems may occur when the pit latrine is shared by too many people, is not cleaned daily and not emptied when the pit is full. In such cases, flies and odour can be a massive nuisance. Also, pit latrines are usually dark places which are difficult to keep clean. Often, hand washing facilities are missing. For these reasons, shared pit latrines can be quite uncomfortable to use in developing countries. Also, there might be cultural preferences for open defecation and these may be difficult to overcome with unattractive toilet designs.


Pit toilets are one of the most common human excreta disposal systems in low-income countries and their use is on the rise as countries aim to meet the sanitation-related target of the Millennium Development Goals. There is concern however that the discharges of chemical and microbial contaminant from pit toilets to underground water may negatively affect human health


The objectives of this study are:

  1. To systematically review empirical studies of the impacts of pit toilets on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State.
  2. To evaluate public pit toilets siting standard.
  3. To identify knowledge gaps regarding the potential for and the consequences of public pit toilets on citizens of Nigeria.


For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0there are no impacts of pit toilets on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State.

H1there are impacts of pit toilets on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State.

H02: there is no public pit toilets siting standard

H2there is public pit toilets siting standard


The study aims to quantify the impact of pit toilet on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state, interpret findings, analyze implications, and convey high level results and implications to national decision-makers for sustainable and better environment of Udi residents and other communities where pit toilets trend in Nigeria.


This study is on the impact of public pit toilet system in Enugu state with particular emphasis on its associated problems in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state as the case study. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


Public:  This pertains to a state, nation, or whole community; proceeding from, relating to, or affecting the whole body of people.
Pit Toilet System: This is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground.

Problems: This is a matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be dealt with and overcome.


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.