Prior to the third republic in Nigeria, there has been a general resistance to investment in training in the public service because of the belief that an employee hired under a merit system must be presumed to be qualified. This assumption was later jettisoned as the need for training became obvious both in the private and public sector together with the expanding roles of the government and the civil services respectively. Training further became necessary in view of advancement in modern world given the growing complexity of the work environment, the rapid change in organizational and technological advancement which in turn necessitates the need for training and development. The role played by staff training can no longer be over-emphasized as many have come to recognize that training offers a way of developing skill, enhancing productivity, guaranteeing quality of work and building worker’s loyalty to the firm.

Organizational goals also keep changing in line with the realities of the time; technology keep getting sophisticated; customers and clients of organization become more choosy and conscious of their rights in demanding organizational products and services, and organization product and service keep changing in response to  their  choice.  These  keep  increasing  the  need  for  well-trained employees. Okotoni and Erero (2005) throw more light to the discussion when they assert that:

The importance of training and development is more obvious given the growing complexity of the work environment, the rapid change in organizations and advancement in technology, among other things. Training and development helps to ensure that organisational members possess the knowledge and skills they need to perform their jobs effectively, take on new responsibilities, and adapt to changing conditions.

Organization regardless of its size must provide for the need, interest and desire of its employee within the environment if it is to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement and commitment necessary to complete effectively. Though there are number  of  factor,  such as  finance,  material and  manpower  which collectively contribute to the production of good and service in organization, human resource has been the most significant factor among these factors. With the provision of finance, material and even machine without experienced and trained manpower nothing can be done. Human resource therefore is the most valuable resource and ultimate  basis  of  an  organization.  Manpower which  was  intellectually   and emotionally trained in turn develop all other dependent segments of the organ to its predetermined level.

Most organizations tend to perceive training as the solution or correct therapy for many of the observed personnel and organizational low performance and productivity problem. Unfo rtunately, there are other personnel management problems that can generate the same performance and productivity problems that lack of skills and knowledge generate. This is why Decenzo and Robbins (2005:247) have warned that

If salaries are low, if supervision is poor, if worker benefits are inadequate or if physical work layout is deficient, spending on employee training may have little or no effect on productivity, since inadequate performance is due to conditions that training cannot remedy.

Abiodun (2008) submitted that training is a systematic development of knowledge skill and attitude required by employee to perform adequately on a given, task training ensures that organizational members posses the knowledge and kill they need to perform their job effectively take a new responsibilities and adapt to changing environment. A result-oriented public or private organization will always need to recruit and train specialized personnel. Generally, the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization therefore lies on the human resources that plans and coordinates work within the organization in relation to the qualitative training designed to improve and to harshness the manpower potentials among others.

Arero and Aygeni (1992) posited that the post independence effort to develop a training system for the Nigerian civil service can be traced to Professor, C.P. Wille’s survey of 1967 on the training Needs of the Federal civil service. The study was conducted and report was submitted. The federal government commissioned the then institute of administration, University of Ife, Ile-Ife to carry out a survey on the training needs of the civil service. After the study was conducted, and the report submitted, the federal government came out with a white paper on the report in April 1969. The document titled “statement of federal government policy on staff training and development on the federal public service has the following key elements; the appointment of department of training officers with responsibility for assessing staff development needs and preparing and implementing programmes to meet these needs; the reorganization of the federal ministry of establishments to give greater priority to training; establishment of a standing committee on staff development, encouragement of every large ministry/department to establish a training commensurate with its size and function; and the establishment of the Administrative staff college of Nigeria.

In addition to the above effort the Public Service Review Commission (PSRC) report of 1974 emphasized also that there was deficiency in training programme throughtout the public service and therefore devoted a substantial

section of the report to training. Amongst others, it recommended the “reactivation of the standing committee on staff Development and Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON) and centre for management development.

Three decades after, another reform endeavour (1988) civil service reform emphasized obligatory and periodic training. A fundamental question is what has happened to this important subject matter through these periods? Little or nothing has been achieved.

However, the success with which an organization survive depended largely on the ability and expertise of human resources who operate both at the managerial and lower levels of operation, such ability and expertise usually stem from the qualitative knowledge possessed and standard training received.


Most of the plans are meticulously on investment in physical and material resources while rarely do such organizational plan pay attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment depended in order to be prudently managed. Not every organization considers the necessity for a well defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance. In other words where training need is recognized and a lot of time and money are committed; the exercise is often inappropriate, haphazard or lopsided in terms of

content and participation. The worst of it is that it is premised on a faulty diagnosis or organizational training needs. In addition to the above, the zeal of training employee is being handicapped by the management: The failure to give cognizance to staff who have acquired additional skills and knowledge in terms of promotion and other fringe benefit. In other words, in a situation where training occurs, deployment of staff, job enlargement are carried out without adequate regard to the skill staff acquire leading to frustration of personnel which usually resulted to low morale to other employee in relation to further training. As a result of this lackadaisical attitude of management towards training, development, there had been a progressive decline in the ability of manpower to cope with the challenges that arise from unfolding new dispensation, ceaseless clamoury for social change, social satisfaction in the public sector.

Although the federal government of Nigeria adopted a recommendation of the 1988 and 1999 civil service commission which stipulated that ten percent (10%) of the total annual personnel emoluments be set aside for staff training and development. Most Federal Universities, including University of Nigeria, Nsukka (U.N.N.) have failed to honour this recommendation. Public servants are sent for training without proper consideration for the relevance to the present job or future posting. Training is supposed to build upon the critical analysis of organizational

objectives and evolutionary trend of the organization. But because of uncoordinated and inaccurate data management in Nigeria Universities training is being carried out on the basis of guess work rather than on fact and figure.

Furthermore, many of the training centres lack adequate facilities specifically most of them do not have modern training facilities such as computer, laboratories, libraries, and vehicles etc. The effect of the above is poor quality and quantity of service delivery in many government parastatals.

As Akpan (1979) stressed, an untrained man is a menace to the society. He is a quark; he knows only the law of things he has no idea of (their) why. Hence if there is any trouble anywhere – breakdown in a machine or a mistake in a ledger all he can do is to tumble and punch up trouble anyhow leading to a more serious breakdown or greater confusion. Really there is no place for the untrained worker or even the intelligent amateur in these days of specialized work.

The Nigerian geographical landscape is littered with quack graduates. As Okoli (2004) puts it, the quality of staff determines the quality of the output. Nigeria public organizations are dominated with quack personnel that have grossly affected the socio-economic development of the country. Nigeria cannot compete with other Africa countries like South Africa in terms of productivity and performance, this has continued to impact on the dependent nature of Nigeria state

on the developed nations for her survival. It is against this background that the researcher considered the need for critical analysis of the nexus between training and productivity.

On this note the research questions that will guide this study are as follows;

1.                 What are the factors that determine the training of Staff of personnel department University of Nigeria Nsukka?

2.                 Does training of the Staff of personnel Service department of University of Nigeria Nsukka bring about improved productivity?

3.                 What are the factors that can hinder the training of Staff of the personnel Service department of University of Nigeria Nsukka?

4.                 How can the needs be effectively filled to improve performance of Staff of the personnel services department of University of Nigeria Nsukka?


The broad objective of the study is to explore staff training and performance in Personnel Services Department of University of Nigeria Nsukka with the view to improve higher productivity. Specifically, it is set to

1.                 To find out the factors that determines the training of Staff of personnel Service department University of Nigeria Nsukka.

2.                 To discover whether training of Staff of personnel Service department of University of Nigeria Nsukka bring about improved productivity

3.                 To examine the factors that can hinder the training of Staff of the personnel department of University of Nigeria Nsukka.

4.                 To recommend measures to improve performance of Staff of the personnel Service department University of Nigeria Nsukka.


The result of the research is expected to go a long way to expose inadequacies of staff training and development programme in the Personnel Services Department. It will also reveals in its totality, the advantage of staff training, development and their implication for management. The research has both theoretical and practical significance.

Theoretically, the study constituted a veritable material for research purposes. It will supplement the limited literature on staff training and its impact on productivity. In other words, the research will adduce essential material for academic study as research work form the basis of any meaningfully study. It will also help to instigate other research to further carrying out extensive study on training. In addition, the study helps to inform

the less informed and uninformed on the role of staff training in national development.

The practical aspect of the significance of this study is that it will help to facilitate the intervention programmes on staff training in Nigeria. This research study serve as an eye opener to the policy makers in making of the policy that will help to propel the management board, private and public institution to embark on the staff training and development.

In addition, the study will contribute greatly in solving the problem of poor service delivery that dominates industries/firms which will help to accelerate socio-economic and political development of the country. This is because there is evidence that investment in training is associated to socio-economic and political development. The development of country is associated with the kind of manpower that exists in the country.


This study focuses on staff training programme in Personnel Services Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, and its effect on the quality and quantity of service delivery. The information for this study will be generated from staff of the personnel service department, University of Nigeria Nsukka. The research also examined the method of staff training, factors affecting training and

strategic measure to improve staff training. In other words we shall generate data for this study from the staff of the personnel service department of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Limitations and constraints in this research are numerous. The problems, the researcher encountered was that some officers especially junior Staff refused to avail themselves for interview for fear that the information given might put their job in jeopardy. To overcome this problem, the researcher had to explain to them critically the main purpose of the research and that there is no impeding dangers as it concern any information given by them. The researcher also assured them of their anonymity.

The dearth of literature especially material that concerns strategic measure towards improving epileptic training in the institution is another constraint to the study. In order to solve this problem, researcher had to move from place to place for documented materials on training and regular sourcing of the internet.