THE IMPACT OF URBAN RURAL DEVELOPMENT
1.1 Background of the Study
Calabar, city and seaport in Southeastern Nigeria, capital of Cross River State, on aim, estuary of the Gulf of Guinea. It is a major transportation center, with good road connections, to the rest of Southeastern Nigeria and neighboring Cameroon, and excellent natural harbor, and an airport. The city is the market center for the surrounding area in which cacao, palm oil, cassava, rubber, and timber are produced. Industries include sawmilling, boat building, cement and ceramics production, and food processing.
The city is the site of the University of Calabar (1975) and the Federal Polytechnic, Calabar (1973).
Calabar dates from the 17th century, which it was a prominent slave- trading port. During the 19th century, it became a center from trade in palm oil and palm kernels. From 1885 to 1906 Calabar was the center for British administration of Southern Nigeria. The Efik are the city’s dominant ethnic group. Population (1995 estimate) 170,000.
1.2 Statement of the Study
Nigeria is still a primarily rural country, with only 48 percent of its population living in cities. Urban areas, however, doubled their share of the population between 1970 and 1996. The country has a long history of Urban development, particularly in northern and southwestern Nigeria where substantial cities are Lagos, and Ibadan.
Calabar, one of the Nigeria first capital and grew as Colonial Nigeria leading port.
In Calabar, and other coastal cities, Christian Missionaries introduced European education in the 1,840s. within a few decides, schooling in English was well established, and some elite families sent their children abroad to study.
Government reforms in the 1970s led to a primary school enrollment rate of about 90 percent of all Calabar Children in 1980. The rapid expansion contributed to falling standards of instruction and other problems. By 1990 only 72 percent of children attended the compulsory first six years of education, due to government cutbacks, rising school fees, the deterioration of building inferior instruction, and poor prospects for graduate.
1.3 Objective of the Study
As in other parts of the country Calabar traditional society have recently been involved in development in many ways. Although this is so empirical study is rather lacking in this regard to ascertain the level to which this is true in traditional Calabar society and Efik in particular. What is, however, Clear is that the Urbanizational changing role of efik people has left impact in every fiber of the society.
Therefore, the aims of this research are as follows:
1. The assessment of Urbanization and social development of the contemporary traditional efik been turned around by the influence of Colonial and traditional factors which has aided the Efik to integrate in Calabar properly.
2. To examine the advantages of Urbanization and social changes of new religious, educational opportunities towards development in Calabar.