IMPLICATIONS OF SET BACKS OF CRIME CONTROL MECHANISMS ON ATTITUDE OF SECURITY PERSONNEL IN AKWA IBOM STATE NIGERIA

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IMPLICATIONS OF SET BACKS OF CRIME CONTROL MECHANISMS ON ATTITUDE OF SECURITY PERSONNEL IN AKWA IBOM STATE NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the implications of set-backs of crime control mechanisms on attitude of security personnel in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data collected from 248 respondents selected using multi-methods of sampling stratified simple medium, purposive and snowball. The theory of planned behaviour postulates three conceptually independent determinants of intention. The first is the attitude toward the behaviour. This refers to the degree to which the person has a favourable or unfavourable evaluation of the behaviour in question. The second predictor is a social factor termed subjective norm. This refers to the perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform the behaviour. The last but most important is the degree of perceived behavioural control. This factor refers to the perceived ease or difficulty of performing the behaviour and it is assumed to reflect past experience as well as anticipated impediments and obstacles. As a general rule, the more favourable the attitude and subjective norm with respect to a behaviour, and the greater the perceived behavioural control, the stronger should be an individual’s intention to perform the behaviour under consideration.
Intention according Ajzen (1993) is viewed as one immediate antecedent of actual behaviour. That is, the stronger people’s intentions to engage in a behaviour or to achieve their behaviour goals, the more successful they are predicted to be. However, the degree of success will depend not only on one’s desire or intention, but also on such partly non motivational factors as availability of requisite opportunities and resources such as time, money, skills, and cooperation of others. Collectively, these factors represent people’s actual control over the behaviour. To the extent that people have the required opportunities and resources, and intend to perform the behaviour, they should succeed in doing so.
The theory of planned behaviour deals with perceived rather than actual behaviour control. In many situations, perceived behavioural control may not be particularly realistic. This is likely to be the case when the individual has relatively little information about the behaviour, when requirements or available resources have changed, or when new and unfamiliar elements have entered into the situation. Under those conditions, a measure of perceived behavioural control may add little to accuracy of behavioural prediction. A direct path from perceived behavioural control to behaviour is therefore expected to emerge only when there is some agreement between perceptions of control and the person’s actual control over the behaviour. The theory of planned behaviour also deals with the antecedents of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control, antecedents which in the final analysis determine intentions and actions.
This theory was found adequate in explaining the study because it shows how individuals change attitude or behaviour as they experience different conditions. The theory can be used to explain the attitude or intention of security personnel particularly the police as he has contact with other people and behaviour. The attitude toward the behaviour of a police personnel is changed due to contact with subjective norms. Chi-square X2 calculated value is less than the table value and so the null hypothesis is accepted while the alternative hypothesis which assumes that that labeling as a set-back of crime control mechanism has a significant contribution or effect on the poor attitude of security personnel in Akwa Ibom State is rejected. The reason for this decision is that the chi-square calculated x2 value 1.76 is less than the table or critical value 5.99.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER TITLE PAGES
Cover Page
Title Page
Declaration
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgements
Abstract
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Literature Review
2.1.1 The Concept of Crime
2.1.2 Overview of Crime Control in Nigeria
2.1.3 Mechanisms of Crime Control
2.1.4 Crime Control Mechanism and Exposure of Identity
2.1.5 Statistics of Crime in Nigeria
2.1.6 Crime Control Mechanism and Labelling
2.1.7 Crime Control Mechanism and Attack
2.1.8 Crime Control Mechanism and Attitude of Security Personnel
2.1.9 Limitations of Crime Control
2.3 Theoretical framework
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design
3.2 The Study Area
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample Size and Determination
3.5 Sampling Technique
3.6 Sources of Data
3.7 Instrument of Data Collection
3.8 Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument
3.9 Method of Data collection
3.10 Method of Data Analysis
3.11 Limitations of the Study
3.12 Ethical Considerations
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Data Presentations and Analysis
4.2 Test of Hypothesis
4.3 Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge
5.5 Suggestion for Further Research
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

LIST OF TABLES
Table Title Page
4.1 Questionnaire Response Rate

4.2 Distribution of the Respondents by Age

4.3 Distribution of the Respondents by Sex

4.4 Distribution of the Respondents by Educational Qualification

4.5 Distribution of the Respondents by Marital Status

4.6 Distribution of the Respondents by Religious Affiliation

4.7 Distribution of the Respondents by Rank

4.8 Distribution of the Respondents by Department

4.9 Distribution of the Respondents by Number of years in the Department

4.10 Distribution of the Respondents by Number of times Experienced Betrayal

4.11: Distribution of the Respondents by Number of times Exposed to Attack

4.12: Distribution of the Respondents by number of times Experienced Personality Attack

4.13 Distribution of the Respondents by Knowledge of Effect of Betrayal

4.14 Contingency table showing observed frequencies for Respondents’ Knowledge of Effect of Exposure of Identity on Attitude of Security Personnel

4.15 Contingency table showing observed frequencies for Respondents’ Knowledge of Effect of Labeling on the Poor Attitude of Security Personnel

4.16 Contingency table showing observed frequencies for Respondents’ Knowledge of Effect of Attack on The Attitude of Security Personnel

LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix Title Page
I Questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
One of the most important drivers of today’s world is security. Security is seen in this perspective because of its influential roles on the existence and development of a country or state. In all countries of the world, security is central to a wide variety of social, economic and political activities. The growing needs for security in different parts of the world has given rise to the adoption of multiple security structures to strengthen the protection of lives and property. Thus, apart from the regular police, so many other security apparatuses have been officially adopted. In Nigeria, the list of crime control apparatuses include the Police, Nigeria Security and Civil Defense Corp, and several privately owned security companies.
According to Adebayo (2013) one of the problems bedeviling Nigeria is the rising wave of crime. Crime is an act of violating the law and equally a social problem that transcends generations and mankind, and characterized all known contemporary modern societies (Meveigh, 1978). It also an act that brings about offences and it is punishable under the law (Oguntunde, Ojo, Okagbue & Oguntunde, 2018). Many other scholars have given varied definitions of the phenomenon. Adebayo (2013), for instance, has defined crime as the breaking of rules or laws for which some governing authority (via mechanisms such as legal systems) can ultimately prescribe a conviction. In the social and legal framework, crime involves a set of facts or assumptions that are part of a case in which there were committed acts punishable under criminal law, and the application of which depends on the agent of a sentence or security measure criminal. Also, according to Adebayo (2013), in criminal law, crime is an act of omission which attracts sanctions such as fines, imprisonment or even death.

IMPLICATIONS OF SET BACKS OF CRIME CONTROL MECHANISMS ON ATTITUDE OF SECURITY PERSONNEL IN AKWA IBOM STATE NIGERIA

IMPLICATIONS OF SET BACKS OF CRIME CONTROL MECHANISMS ON ATTITUDE OF SECURITY PERSONNEL IN AKWA IBOM STATE NIGERIA