INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON INDIVIDUAL PRODUCTIVITY OF CIVIL SERVANT (A CASE STUDY OF CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION UYO AKWA IBOM STATE)
The history of motivation can be traced back to the 1920’s when the Hawthorne studies were conducted. Prior to this, there had been confusion of motivation with the term “movement”. Movement is the bringing and showing of people, again and again usually in little harder each time in order to achieve accepted work performance. The concept motivation developed through various stages of movement before the proper meaning was arrived at.
The first to these was the area of Tayloisim this refers to the scientific management work of Frederick W. Taylorisin. He formulated his theory in the early 1900 and it was based on the assumption that human efficiency can be maximized by reducing a task to the lowest common denominator of skill. His job designs standardized physical movements and mental decision so that any worker could easily master them. The problem was that these jobs lacked the challenge that motivate human beings. Taylor had to “move” bored and reluctant workers with piece-rate by incentives.
Time and motion studies, rigid job description, hourly wage and bonus systems and assembly lines are still with us far back from the day of scientific management.
Next to this, is the human relations movement. By the end of the great depression, some enlightened, managers were beginning to recognize that Taylorism, with its constant supervision and money incentive scheme, might not be answer to workers motivation. Landmark studies such as those performed at the thorne plant of western electric company showed that workers were willing to restrict their products loose some of their pay in order to win approval from their fellow workers. These finding helped usher in the age of human relation in management.
Unfortunately the attempt to get long term motivation from short social relationship has often turned human relations management into manipulative skill. Managers are required to practice various interpersonal skill to “move” employees various interpersonal by semi therapeutic group procedures for example sensitivity training. Employee in turn very often learn to see through the technique of their values wear off in real world and employees then becomes more cynical above management intentions.
Due to the short comings of the Human relations movements, the behavior modification group came into being based on large degree on the work of B.F. SKINNER, Behaviour modification emphasizes what is technically called “Contingent Reinforcement” in its attempt to increase motivation, this strategy used both the pay incentives of Taylorism and the social incentives of human relations management to move employees. Rewards are carefully tied to the accomplishment of specific goals, so that performance evaluation and administration as pay and social reward systems become the important areas of concentration for management.
Behaviors modification assumes that by carefully scheduling such extrinsic rewards, management can teach employee to want to do their jobs. This only resulted in workers becoming satisfied or addicted to the extrinsic reward. They do not become motivated at work.
In Nigeria, personnel management developed mostly in the 1970’s. This is evident in the increase in membership of various personnel management association’s and also the establishment of personnel departments is almost every organization. It was realized that if an organization is to function effectively, it must somehow find ways of including people in its objectives. It musts solicit a type of individual commitment that will ensure maximum efforts with a minimum external supervision and control.
The term public service in Nigeria, covers the civil services proper. The civil service proper is the service of the federal and state Government and service in the statutory cooperation’s and Government. Owned companies and the Armed forces.
For sometimes, there has been a continuing out cry on the low level of productivity of workers in the Akwa Ibom State Civil Services. In order to determine the validity or otherwise of the outcry, it is necessary to have a study of how workers in the civil service are motivated and how the workers react to motivation and the effect of motivation on the performance of the worker on their jobs. It is important for the purpose of this study to note that for some years past, there has been no committed workers in Nigeria to their work, mainly because of the economic mass. People do not have job security, some workers are either compulsorily retied or retrenched. Even with the recent exercise on elongation and adjustment of salary grade levels affected on January 1988, the workers are yet to be motivated.
As for back as in the 70’s money has been erroneously used to motivate the civil servants by Government. This rather than spur the workers to work, only succeeded in making them develop an ever increasing appetite for money. It also aided inflation. A social phenomenon which has made it difficult for workers to satisfy their basic primary needs.
The continuous treatment of workers as machines, however, all because of recession in the economy will not help the Nation and Akwa Ibom State in particular, at this time when increase in productivity is highly needed.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF AKWA IBOM STATE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION UYO
The Akwa Ibom State Civil Service commission, as an agency of Government was established under the 1979 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Akwa Ibom State Edict No. 1 of 1979. It continued to carry out its functions in accordance with the provision of Decree No. 43 of 1988, otherwise known as the civil service (Re-organization) decree 198 and the 1979 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria was amended.
The civil service commission as stipulated in the civil service (Re-organization) decree 1988, is responsible for recruitment, promotion and discipline of staff on salary grade level 07-10 in the state service. The structure and content of the delegated powers to ministries and Departments in respect of officers on salary grade level 01-06 remained unchanged during the period. The grade level is the commission were of two levels’ the senior and junior level staff. The junior level staff were from level 01-06 grades while the senior level officers were from levels 07-17 grades which was sub-divided into middle officers 07-12 and senior level officers 13-17. The salary structure were grade accordingly with those levels.