INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISMS FOR COMBATING CORRUPTION IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE: APPRAISAL OF THE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION (EFCC) (2005-2015)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content                                                                                                                             Page

Title page                                                                                                                             i

Declaration                                                                                                                           ii

Certification                                                                                                                         iii

Dedication                                                                                                                            iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                v

Abstract                                                                                                                                vii

Table of Contents                                                                                                                 viii

Lists of Tables                                                                                                                      xiii

CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction                                                                                                                      1
    1. Background to the study                                                                                                   1
    1. Statement of the Problem                                                                                                6
    1. Objectives of the Study                                                                                                   7
    1. Research Questions                                                                                                          8
    1. Research Hypothesis                                                                                                        8
    1. Significance of the Study                                                                                                  9
    1. Scope and Limitation of the Study                                                                                   10
    1. Research Methodology                                                                                                     10
    1. Conceptual Clarifications                                                                                                 10
    1. Chapterization of the Study                                                                                            11
    1. References                                                                                                                      12

CHAPTER TWO

2.2.3   State capture and influence peddling                                                                           32

2.2.7   Patronage and paternalism                                                                                           32

45

Crimes Commission (EFCC)                                                                                      50

of the EFCC                                                                                                               57

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research methodology                                                                                              78
  • Research Design                                                                                                        78
    • Study Area                                                                                                                 78
    • Population of Study                                                                                                   78
    • Sample Size                                                                                                                78
    • Sample Technique                                                                                                      78
    • Instruments of Data Collection                                                                                   78
    • Method of Data Analysis                                                                                            79
    • References                                                                                                                  80

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data presentation, interpretation and result of findings                                             81
    • SECTION A: Socio-economy information of Respondents                                      81
      • SECTION B: Established institutional mechanism variables                                     85
      • Activeness of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in combating corruption in Nigeria public service                                                                                                 85
      • Effectiveness of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in combating corruption in Nigeria  public service                                                                                            89
      • Problems/challenges associated with the effective functioning of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in combating corruption in Nigeria                           95

4.3       Result of Findings                                                                                                       99

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary, conclusion and recommendation                                                                  102
    • Summary of Findings                                                                                                   102
    • Conclusions                                                                                                                   103
    • Recommendations                                                                                                      103
    • Recommendation for Further Study                                                                           104

BIBLOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 105

APPENDIX………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110

LIST OF TABLES

Chapter 2                                                                                                                          Pages

Table 1: EFCC High Profile Cases                                                                                         59

Chapter 4

4          Table 1: Gender Information of the Respondents                                                      81

4          Table 2: Age information of the respondents                                                             81

4          Table 3: Educational information of the Respondents                                               82

4          Table 4: Occupation information of the respondents                                                 83

4          Table 5: Monthly income Information of the Respondents                                       83

4          Table 6: Religion Information of the respondents                                                      84

4          Table 7: Activeness of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in combating corruption in Nigeria                                                                                                   85

4          Table 7b: Chi-Square Test of significant activeness of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in combating corruption in Nigeria                                                       89

4          Table 8: The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and

its effectiveness in fighting corruption in Nigeria                                                      90

4          Table 8b: Chi-Square Test of significant effectiveness of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in combating corruption and corruption                                   94

4          Table 9: Problems facing the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in combating corruption in Nigeria                                                                                                   95

4          Table 9b: Chi-Square Test of significant problems and challenges of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in combating corruption

98

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of Study

Corruption is a global malaise which has not been known to spare any country in the world. This entails that corruption is a common phenomenon found not only in the developing countries and societies, but also in the so – called advanced societies in Europe, America, Japan and Russia despite their level of development. However, its depth and span of existence in Nigeria has created the negative impression that it is indigenous to the nation. Corruption is a recurring decimal in the Nigerian public service and to socio-economic and political development of the

country. Alabi and Fashagba (2010:p1) observed that, one major challenge to Nigeria‘s search for enduring socio-economic, political and technological development as well as efficient and productive utilization of allocated resources in the new millennium is the pervasive corrupt practices in the polity. In a related view Ango (1986:p9) stated that, ―no doubt, corruption has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian Society, so much so that, I believe it is at present the greatest obstacles to national development‖ corruption appears to be seen in some quarter as something worthy of accommodation. Thus Ogundeji (2000:p7) states that:

Corruption has had such a good run in our schema of things that many compatriots are daily seeking examples to authenticate why the madness may essentially be accommodated as Nigeria‟s peculiar cross, a defying trait of the people.”

Appreciating the predicament, the former President Obasanjo, (2006) stated that: “The impact of official corruption is so rampant and has earned Nigeria a very bad image at home and abroad. Besides, it has

caused distorted and retrogressive development.

Our infrastructure- NEPA & NITEL(now defunct), Roads, Railway,

Education, Housing and other social services were allowed to decay

and collapse. All these have brought the situation to chaos and near despair…”

Corruption does not operate in a vacuum but in a social context especially in administrative sphere. Anugwom (1977), Nwachukwu (1987) and Achabe (1983) have identified it as a cog in the wheel of the progress of the public service in Nigeria. Indeed, in many ways it can be argued that the popular diagnosis of the root of Nigeria‘s political and under-development since independence is the fact of pervasive corruption in public life. For example, when the Nigeria military made its political debut by subordinating other organs of state to itself in

1966 the war against corruption was core aspect of their raison d‘etre. In his celebrated broadcast of January 15, 1966, major Nzeogwu proclaimed inter alia that the aim of the Revolutionary Council is to establish a strong, united and prosperous nation, free from corruption and internal… our enemies are the political profiteers, the swindlers, the men in high and low places that seek bribe and demand ten percent, those that seek to keep the country divided permanently so that they can remain in office as minister or VIP‘s at least the tribalists, the nepotists, those that make the country look big for nothing before international circles, those that have corrupt our society and put Nigeria calendar back by their words and deeds (Ademoyega 1981:p87).

INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISMS FOR COMBATING CORRUPTION IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE: APPRAISAL OF THE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION (EFCC) (2005-2015)