1.1 Background of the study
The search for efficient and effective delivery of instructions to Students has always been major concern of Science Educators. This is so as a result of repeated mass failure recorded in Mathematics and other Science subjects in Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) and West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE). Poor academic performance in Mathematics could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. Among other factors that could be responsible for this failure, are the instrumental materials which definitely must have a significant role to play in teaching and learning processes. The importance of instrumental materials in teaching and learning is too obvious to be overemphasized. A lot has been written to show the indispensable role of instrumental materials in curricular implementation.
According to Onyejemezi (2007), Ogunranti (2008) and Afolajic (2009), these authors point out that instructional materials increase the rate of learning, save the teacher time and effort increase learners interest and facilitate retraction of what is learned. To further show the importance of instructional materials, Iegede, Okata, Eniayelu (2011), reported factors responsible for poor performance in Science, Technology and Mathematics which include poor laboratory facilities, inappropriate teaching methods and inadequate number of learning facilities in schools as against consistent increase in number of students. In condition of insufficient supply of instructional materials by the government, improvised materials can also serve similar role of simplifying explanations given by teachers. Improvisations of instructional materials need the effort of Mathematics teachers for its realization.
Bassey (2012) and Omosewo (2013) stated that many Nigerians Science teachers were aware of possibility of improvisation. They also noted that few teachers practice while majority depends on imported equipment and claim that improvisation is time consuming and often depleting. Whether instructional materials are classified as improvised or imported, the most important effect of these materials is to assist in achieving the stated behavioural objectives when evaluated at the end of a lesson or programme. These findings refer generally to teaching Science subjects in Nigerian Schools. One is not sure what the situation is with Mathematics teachers in Akwa Ibom State. Hence, this Study on teacher’s use of instructional materials on Junior Secondary School III students’ Academic Performance in Mathematics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area worth investigating.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
With regard to different views held on importance of instructional materials by different authors and the observed progressive decline in Secondary School Students’ academic performance in Mathematics in Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) and West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE), there is need to further investigate the roles of instructional materials utilization on the academic performance of junior Secondary School III Students in Mathematics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The Study investigated instructional materials utilization on junior Secondary III Student’s performance in Mathematics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The Study is defined to achieve the following objectives. 1. To examine the difference in the performance of Students taught Mathematics using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials. 2. To determine the differences in pre-test and post-test scores of Students taught with instructional materials 3. To examine the difference between the post-test scores of male and female Students taught with instructional materials.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The use of various instructional materials to examine the achievement of Educational objectives in Mathematics need not be overemphasized. The findings of this Study will be useful to many people. Teachers will get to understand better, the level of Students performance in mathematics through the use of instructional materials. Educational authorities may use the findings of this Study to stress to teachers during seminars and workshops the steps of instructional materials to emphasize in the course of teaching Mathematics in the junior Secondary School Classes. Textbooks writers on instructional materials can make the outcome of this Study a reference point in their books while discussing matters relating to methodology and Students performance.
Finally, the Students will benefits because the finding of this Study will encourage Mathematics teachers to use the instructional materials in the Study, when those instructional materials are used; the Students are likely to perform more better in mathematics. 1.5 Research Questions The following research questions were formulated to guide the Study. 1. Is there any significant difference between Students taught with instructional materials? 2. Is there any significant difference between pre-test scores and post-test scores of Students taught with instructional materials? 3. Is there any significant difference between the post-test scores of the male and female Students taught with instructional materials?