INTEGRATION OF YOUTUBE VIDEOS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE SPEAKING SKILLS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NAKURU COUNTY, KENYA

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ABSRACT

Internet resources have the potential to improve teaching and learning. YouTube is a modern technology that is redesigning business, media, entertainment, and humanity in different ways. YouTube is the most popular website that hosts a variety of videos. These include educational videos, documentaries, video clips and live streams from media corporations. With the opportunities it provides, it is now being tapped to transform education. This thesis examines the integration of YouTube videos in teaching and learning of English language speaking skills among secondary school students in Nakuru County-Kenya. Objectives of the study include: to test the effectiveness of YouTube videos in teaching and learning of ELSS, to establish the nature and level of utilization of YouTube videos in the teaching and learning of ELSS, to determine the teachers’ perceptions in the use of YouTube videos in teaching of ELSS, and to find out the challenges that teachers face in integrating YouTube videos in the teaching of ELSS. This research addressed an innovative instructional resource in the teaching of English language and how this can bring about theconceptualization of abstract skills for EFL learners. This study adopted a mixed method. These are qualitative and quantitative research. Various studies in education have recommended the use of ICT such as video technology to enhance traditional face to face instruction. This research set to authenticate this recommendation by examining the effectiveness of videos from YouTube to teach English language speaking skills. The research was experimental in design and was carried out in six schools in Nakuru county, Nakuru North sub-county. These include a national school, two extra-county schools, one county school and two sub county schools. The sample size comprised 360 students and 12 teachers. 180 students were in the control group and 180 in the experimental group. Data was collected using standard students’ assessment tests (SSAT), Class observation schedule and questionnaires. Data was analyzed using independent t tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental group that had been treated with videos from YouTube and the control group that had not been treated t =10.5386, p ˂ 0.01). Another observation was that the experimental group exhibited better analytical skills of the test items compared to the control group. The third observation is that teachers perceive YouTube videos as a resource that can make learning meaningful and interesting. From the findings, three recommendations were made. The first supports increased utilization of videos from YouTube to teach language skills such as speaking skills, secondly to empower teachers with the necessary skills on how to integrate the same in teaching and learning and also teachers should use teaching and learning activities that encourage leaners to communicate in the target language. Implications of using YouTube videos in teaching and learning as well as suggestions for further research have been provided.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

            Background to the Study

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has the potential to provide learners with new modes of learning (King, 2002 & Rovai, 2002). A lot of research has been conducted on the integration of technology into classroom teaching to supplement and modify traditional instructional practices (Hennessy et al., 2005). Many countries have made efforts to invest in ICT integration in education. This is because they regard it as a tool to provide learners with new styles of learning (Angeli, 2008).Turkey and Asia have spent 11.7% and 22% respectively of their budgets on ICT (World Bank, 2007). These percentages are higher in developing countries. Rwanda for instance, implemented one laptop per child programme. Comparatively, Kenya has made several strides towards integration of technology in teaching.

The government of Kenya has made several efforts in equipping teachers with ICT skills so that they integrate technology in the classroom. The country promulgated a Policy on ICT in January 2006. This catapulted the implementation of ICT in Kenyan schools. Government institutions like the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) have produced digital content for the learners (The Kenya Report 2017). This is in a bid to promote learner centered teaching and self-directed learning. Several efforts including equipping both primary and secondary schools with ICT infrastructure have been made. Teachers have been trained on several topics to enable them utilize technology in their lessons (The Kenya Report 2017). This research was a follow up activity to see how the teachers are using internet resources to teach English language speaking skills.

According to KICD (2006), there are four language skills that are taught. These are reading, listening and speaking and writing skills. Reading and Listening are receptive skills that help in information gathering and learning of concepts. The learner then responds to information appropriately either by speaking or writing. Speaking skills are productive skills that are crucial to the learners both in and out of school. One has to reflect on the various signs that communicate apart from words and thereafter engage the most effective communication strategies. Speaking skills also help individuals to express themselves in a logical manner when they use language for various functions. YouTube videos are resources that can be used to demonstrate how the skills are applied in context. English language speaking skills is an area that covers pronunciation, prosody, etiquette, discourse analysis and verbal and non-verbal skills used in speaking.

Table 1.1 Candidates’ Performance in 3 Sub Counties in Nakuru County

  2013  EntryNakuru North 3489Njoro 3665Subukia 3354
 Mean5.785.625.95
2014Entry419842513985
 Mean6.9005.555.64
2015Entry523148574156
 Mean5.7835.095.07
2016Entry567851484586
 Mean4.4614.794.31
2017Entry597052484796
 Mean4.5604.754.09

Source: Nakuru County Education Office

Table 1.1 shows the performance of English for the past four years. The figures indicate a fluctuating performance in English in Nakuru County. Most schools could not manage the mean average of 6.00 .The dwindling performance in English shows that speaking skills are not being acquired effectively. Moreover, there has been a public outcry of Kenyan graduates who cannot communicate in English (Alonzo, 2014). This could be as a result of rote learning that started from primary school; sustained to secondary school and ingrained in institutions of higher learning (Buhere, 2009). This research will focus on the teaching resources that teachers of English in Nakuru-North Sub- County utilize to teach ELSS.