INTERCOMMUNAL RIVALRY AND ALLIANCE SYSTEM IN THE EASTERN NIGER DELTA: A STUDY OF OKRIKA-KALABARI RELATIONS, 1800-1960.

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ABSTRACT

Okrika and Kalabari relations has been found to be more of rivalry than allied structure in the Eastern Niger Delta, beginning from the period of pre-colonial, colonial but ends in post-colonial era. During the pre-colonial era, it was because of fishing rights and settlement at the bank of the Calabar River, which often led to wars. This spurred the researcher to examine the gravity and benefit of the fishing rights and settlement. At the time, the wars were fought with traditional fighting materials, like spear, knife, stone or physical hands. But during the 1800s, though Okrika and Kalabari wars were motivated in part by ancient struggle for political and economic dominance in the Delta areas, the immediate factor responsible for their resurgence and fierceness were all casually related to the commercial transition and the availability of weapons of mass destructions, purchased from or given by European Merchants and British consuls. To achieve this objective, therefore, the researcher put to use evidences obtained from interview, published and unpublished works, correspondence, treaties and documents. Consequently, the rivalry caused the sacking of Elem Kalabari to new locations of Abonnema, Buguma, and Bakana. Though Okrika and Kalabari right from pre-colonial to colonial era had been more in rivalry but by post-colonial era, this rivalry structure was changed to an alliance. Okrika and Kalabari later decide to keep their past hostilities behind, stake their future together, to send memoranda to the federal Government in 1979, 1991 and 1994 respectively, to remain part and parcel of Rivers state.     

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        I

CERTIFICATION         –        –        –        –        –        –        II

DEDICATION     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT       –        –        –        –        –        IV

ABSTRACT        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        VI

TABLE OF CONTENTS        –        –        –        –        –        VII

LIST OF FIGURES       –        –        –        –        –        –        X

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Objective of Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3     Scope of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.4     Research Methodology –                   –        –        –        –        4

1.5     Literature Review –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.6     Chapterization     –        –        –        –        –        –        12

CHAPTER TWO: THE NIGER DELTA BEFORE THE NINETEENTH  CENTURY

2.1     The Land and the people                  –        –        –        –        15

2.2     Socio-political systems of Niger Delta Communities     18

2.3     Pre-Nineteenth century Economic Activities        –        –        125

2.4     The End of the Slave trade and its impact  –        –        28

          End notes

CHAPTER THREE: THE PALM OIL TRADE AND COMMERCIAL RIVALRY

3.1     Okrika-Kalabari Rivalry and Alliance System     –        33

3.2     Causal Factors in the Okrika-kalabari Rivalry     –        40

3.3     The Role of Indigenous Arbitrators –        –        –        44

3.4     The Role of European Merchants and Consuls    –        47

           End notes

CHAPTER FOUR: OKRIKA-KALABARI RELATIONS IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

4.1     Impact of the Nineteenth Century Rivalry and Alliance

System        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

4.2     Colonialism and Okrika-Kalabari Relations        –        –        59

4.3     Okrika-Kalabari Relations in the Post-Colonial Era.     70

          End notes

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS  AND CONCLUSION

5.1     Summary    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        74

5.2     Recommendations         –        –        –        –        –        –        77

5.3     Conclusion –        –        –        –        –        –        –        79

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTERCOMMUNAL RIVALRY AND ALLIANCE SYSTEM IN THE EASTERN NIGER DELTA: A STUDY OF OKRIKA-KALABARI RELATIONS, 1800-1960.