Ionizing radiations have a profound effect on reproductive system and functions especially among women radiographers. The word infertility is seen as the inability to conceive children. The schedule of the delivered ionizing radiation (total dose, numbers of fraction and duration) is an important determinant of the radio biological effect on the tissues and organs. The ionizing radiation to the central nervous system may affect the timing of the onset of puberty, result to infertility.However the work will highlight some basic concepts on ionizing radiation which leads to infertility among women and failure of uterine expansion during pregnancy with subsequent miscarriage and premature.
In 1962, the Colorado state university and the American institute of biological science under the guidance and scientific leadership of Dr’s Carlson and ciassner, conduct a research on the effects of ionizing radiation on the female reproductive system which lead to infertility.
The word infertility is defined as the inability to conceive children. This strengthens the long – standing emphasis on knowing the fact as the basis which leads to infertility among the women radiographers.
Radiation may be define as the emission or transmission of energy in form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium the energy can be inform of non- ionizing and ionizing radiation. The ionizing radiation may come from either an external source such as x-ray machine therefore radiation is perceived as a unique hazard to women radiographers. The unique hazard as it is perceived is due to inherent property of ionizing radiations to dislodge orbital electrons to form ions as it passes through matter and these ions can destabilize molecules within cells, which also lead to tissue damage of the reproductive organs and also lead to infertility.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Infertility is one of the major problems especially on the women radiographers in the world. The risk of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation among health care providers is a major concern. In Nigeria, very little is known about the effect knowledge of ionizing radiation. It is important to understand how the ovaries and female reproductive organs function and how they may be affected by the ionizing radiation. This study aimed to expose ionizing radiation affect which lead to infertility among the women radiographers
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The medical X-ray investigation is an indispensable arm of modern medicine that uses x –ray for diagnosis, with the advent of x-rays as a diagnostic technique, radiological risk are increasing. The increase in utilization has lead to a parallel increase in concern regarding ionizing radiation risk. This is because x ray procedures utilize ionizing radiation which is very harmful to reproductive organs health of women radiographers.
Although in x-rays investigations, low dose of ionizing radiations are utilized so that the exposure to the radiation effect can be reduce. However the radiologist/ radiographers tries toreduce the probability of radiation risks occurrence by making radiation dose from medical imaging as low as reasonable achievable, yet no risk should be over looked no matter how insignificant such risk is. Awareness among people by media on radiation risks is aggressive but often exaggerated and this creates several misconception, confusion and erroneous beliefs that exist on risk.
1.3 AIM ANDOBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study is on the ionizing radiation as a means of infertility among women radiographers and these include the following below.
1. To provide you with a knowledge on ionizing radiation effect which can result to infertility on women radiographers
2. To unravel the basis for disproportionate ionizing radiation impacts on women reproductive organs or system
3. To expose and reveal biological effect of radiation to the general public
4. To find out if the women radiographers were aware of the danger attached to their work
5. To clarify the association between ionizing radiotherapy and the risk of reproductive health impairmentfor women radiographers
6. To know the females reproductive health is one of great significance for familial and social harmony
1.4 RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS
In this study the following assumptions will be made.
a. That good awareness on the effect of ionizing radiation to radiographers should be emphasis
b. That even very low doses of ionizing radiation can cause infertility to women radiographers
c. The emotional and psychologic stresses resulting from exposure should be recognized and addressed early in a radiation incident
d. Health care providers should also understand the strategies on physics, chemistry and biology of radiation to communicate effectively about it.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
Researchers more often than not usually limited to a number of problems. These limiting factors amongst other include good financial base, adequate time for the study.
The positive influence of all the factors will ensure a good project research work. But in the event, where the influence is rather negative the problem you seek to limit the research work.
Also limitations are matters and occurrences that arise in a study which are out of the researcher’s control they limit the extensity to which a study can go and sometimes affect the end result and conclusions that can be drawn. Every study, no matter how well it is conducted and constructed, has limitations. This is one of the reasons why we do not use the words “prove” and “disprove” with respect to research findings. It is always possible that future research may cast doubt on the validity of any hypothesis or conclusion from a study.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The terms stated here are define in the context of the study research accordingly.
a. Ionizing: is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions.
b. Radiation: The term radiation means to give off energy as waves or particles.
c. Radiology: is the medical specialty that uses medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases within the body.
d. Reproductive: this is connected with reproducing babies, young animals or plants
e. Miscarriage: spontaneous premature expulsion of a fetus from the womb
f. Biological: the science of or relating to biology
g. Radiographers: a person whose job is to take x ray’s photographs
h. Conceive: become pregnant
i. Infertility: the inability to conceive children
j. Hazard: danger or risk a thing
k. X ray machine: a machine that take photograph through radiation showing bones or organs of the body.
l. Indispensable: something too important to be without
m. Risk: the possibility of something bad happening at some time in the future
n. Dose: the amount of radiation received
o. Exposure: exposing or physical condition resulting from being exposed to the elements.