1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
All over the world the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has became a stumbling stone in progress of human civilization and is a huge concern for people worldwide. Since the identification of the HIV in the early 1980s, much has been learned about how the virus is transmitted and how it attacks the body’s immune system and causes the AIDS. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has grown on an unprecedented scale in the last three decades since it was first recognized, and now it is considered a global crisis. The countries, which have to fight with the concentrated or generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic, are facing enormous socio-economic problems.
In 2011, the total number of people living with HIV was 34.2 million, newly infected with HIV was 2.5 million, and AIDS deaths was 1.7 millionUNISAID (2011). The cases have been reported in all regions of the world, but largest part those existing with HIV (97%) reside in low and middle income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan AfricaUNISAID (2011). The majority new infections are transmitted heterosexually, while the risk factors vary. In some countries, men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDUs), and sex workers (SW) are at significant risk. Most people living with HIV or at risk for HIV do not have access to prevention, care, and treatment, and there is still no cureUNISAID (2011).
1 AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) was first recognized among homosexual men in the USA in 1981 and subsequently in Europe and sub-Saharan Africa and since then there has been an explosion in HIV transmission .UNAIDS/WHO. (1998). There is a growing need for giving special attention to young people in the AIDS epidemic field worldwide UNESCO (1994).According to UNICEF reports there are 11.8million young people between 15-24 years living with HIV/AIDS UNESCO (1994).
Education about how AIDS is transmitted and prevented is the primary weapon against AIDS, because there is no treatment or vaccine to prevent its spread and drug therapy is very expensive. However prevention strategies must be culturally specific. In 1994 UNESCO organized the Asian Regional planning seminar on AIDS and Education and recommended that by the end of 1994 every country in the region should develop a clear written policy on AIDS education, which would form basis of a national action plan for AIDS education within the school system UNESCO (1994).There were 95 people with HIV/AIDS in Iran in 1987 and in 2004 this number was increased to 7108, the majority of them were young people at the age range of 25-34.
In 1987, the transmission modes of infection were mainly via blood and blood products, while in 2004 were shared needles between addicted people Iranian CDC. (2004) Because of unreasonable fears among most Iranian people that AIDS education promotes high risk behaviors, sexual relations are not openly discussed and so there are limited contents on HIV/AIDS and sex education in the school curriculum.
Knowing the public information regarding HIV/AIDS and their attitude toward people with AIDS/HIV (PWA) can provide a basis for appropriate educational program in each community. So, we investigated knowledge of and attitude toward AIDS/HIV among senior school students in Isfahan city, Iran. We also assessed the sources of their information about AIDS/HIV. Teachers, school consultants, and family members and health professionals were less effective sources for education of the students. It is consistent with Westrupp et al study (16). Majority of respondents knew the main modes of HIV transmission.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
HIV/AIDS is one of the most deadly disease that has no medical remedy(cure) for now but the level at which some people neglect the facts or information that needs to be known becomes very pathetic to the researcher cause they might be ignorantly driving themselves to their early grave. Lack of proper information might be a challenge facing the knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS; this is because even the nursing mothers in the rural areas that are infected which gave birth at homes might not be exposed to helping information that can help them and their babies. So many at times young people (students) see the disease of HIV/AIDS as just “not real” even when they have been thought on the disease, its effect and its preventive measure. Finally, several research has been carried out on the HIV/AIDS but not even a single research has been carried out on knowledge attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main of the study is to examine the knowledge and attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS. Other specific objective include:
1. to determine the factors affecting HIV/AIDS.
2. to determine the preventive measures of HIV/AIDS.
3. to determine the economic importance of HIV/AIDS
4. to proffer solutions to the problem.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the factors affecting HIV/AIDS?
2. What are the preventive measures of HIV/AIDS?
3. What is the economic importance of HIV/AIDS?
4. What are the solutions to the problem?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H1: There is a relationship in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the prevention of the disease.
H0: There is no relationship in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the prevention of the disease.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the knowledge and attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS will be of immense benefit to the entire students in the sense that it will educate them on how to safeguard themselves against this deadly disease to avoid pre-mature death, it will also enable government to make sex education compulsory for all students in other to create awareness concerning the virus. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the knowledge attitude of students is limited to HIV/AIDS.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Knowledgefacts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject.
AttitudeA settled way of thinking or feeling about something
Students: Is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution who attends classes in a course to attain the appropriate level of mastery of a subject under the guidance of an instructor.
HIV/ AIDS Is a virus that attacks immune cells called CD-4 cells, which are a subset of T cells.