LEADERSHIP STYLES AND IT IMPACT ON PRODUCTIVITY” (A CASE STUDY OF ZENITH BANK)
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The existence stability and continuity of any organisation be it economical, political, social, business enterprises et cetera derives its strength and can also achieve its overall goals and objectives from the successful guidance and proper usage of Human capital. “An organisation is a structured process in which persons interact for objectives” (Hicks and Gullet 1981). In formal organisation the interaction are naturally coordinated and directed overtime on continuous basis. The person(s) responsible for directing the effort of others in this case is the leader.
The word “leadership” may be seen as influence, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly towards the achievement of group goals. This implies not only in the willingness to work but willingness to work with zeal and confidence (Blanchard, 1990).
Therefore, leadership always involves the attempts of a leader (influencers) to affect (influence) the behaviour in a specific situation or activity.
Leadership has been widely used by political orators business executives, social workers and scholars. Yet there is a widespread disagreement to what it means. Among social scientists the theoretical formulation of leadership. Concept has continued to shift from one concept to another. At one time the emphasis was on the attribute of a leader while at another time it was concerned with the best leadership style.
It is necessary to distinguish between the idea of leadership as a personal quality and leadership as an organizational function. The first has to do with special combination of personal characteristics and make one to consider the qualities and abilities of individuals. The second refers to the distribution of power and decision making which also make one to look at the patterns of power and authority in the organisation.
Management researchers has adequately identified leadership styles and have also extensively discussed them in relation to the situational applicability. The increasing need for higher productivity in any organisation and the role of leaders in achieving productivity is a very formidable one.
Therefore to build effectively, a leader needs a variety of tools and the knowledge of what they are designed to accomplish. It is unrealistic to think that a single tool is all that is needed to manage effectively. A leader needs to understand and be able to use different tools when leading and managing people for greater output.
It is also pertinent to note that since real life situation are never static, they are in a constant state of change. Things are either getting better or worse. Leadership effectiveness and efficiency increases the more the leaders understand and practice the skills.
In every organisation the manager or leader has to carryout a number of functions at one time or another, such as planning, controlling, directing, activating, manipulating, coordination and evaluation (Liversey et al, 1983).
If the efficiency and productivity are to improve in an organisation, it is imperative that every manager, supervisor and operator should contribute their own quota for this positive change.
The one factor that influence the effect of leadership style is “perception”. Perception here refers to the process through which short run changes are made in behaviour in response to impact from work environment. This process consist of two major action, attention in coming stimuli and the translation of such stimuli into message that lead to a behavioural change of response (Szillagy 1980). This perception is a form of behaviour influenced by at least the following factors. Characteristics of the object or source of incoming stimuli (such as a supervisor issuing instruction at work) the situation and the condition under which the stimuli occur (such as the timing of the message) and lastly the characteristics of the proceeding person. An individual motive, previous learning and personality, all of these influence perception. Leaders should take such consideration into account in predicting the way their actions and orders are perceived by others.
Another factor influencing leadership style is the issue of motivation. According to Ikemefana (1994) refers motivation to be the workers related behaviour, workers internal energizing force, persistence effort and direction which when sustained will enhance productivity. Motivation will help leaders understand why employees behave the way they do and how it can also influence employees performance.
According to Koontz (1988). He identified leadership styles based on the use of authority. He mentioned autocratic, democratic and the free-rein leaders. He identified the autocratic leaders as one who is dogmatic and positive with the ability to withhold or give rewards or punishment. While the democratic consults with subordinate on proposed action and decisions and also encourage participation from them. The free-rein also known as the Lassaz-faire type of leaders who uses their power very little giving employees high degree of independence in their operations.
It should be noted that Koontz concluded that the usage of these three leadership style above depends on the situation. A leader is responsible and entrusted to perform such managerial functions as; planning, organizing, directing and controlling the work. Though Stoner et al (1982) sees leadership as the process of directing and influencing the task-related activities of group members.
The above definition shows three important implication, first, leadership must involve other people (employees) secondly, leadership involve an unequal distribution of power among leaders and groups members. Thirdly, they can influence employees in a variety of ways.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The core problem of this research anchors on the fact that most managers adopt several leadership styles to enhance employees performance and efficiency and yet they still fail. It is a general view that some commercial banks in the country have preformed poorly and this attributed to the leadership pattern as well.
Most leaders attribute failure in productivity to other factors other than they themselves. Managers often fail to apply effective styles to influence their subordinates in order to accomplish set out goals and objectives (Byham, 1988).
More attention is usually paid to the production of goods and services at the detriment of the leadership styles employed in the production (Blanchard, 1990). The problem is not really scarcity of well trained man power neither is it lack of fund as often speculated but it is the lack of effective leadership and the inability of the few trained ones to lead effectively.
It is against this background that the researcher intends to access the role of leadership styles and their effects (negatively or positively) on employees productivity.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
This study has the following objectives:
- To offer solutions to the problems arising from leadership style.
- To investigate why leaders exhibit styles which are inimical to the performance of their subordinate.
- To determine the effect of poor leadership style on productivity.
- And to also suggest ways which will help both managers and employees to co-exist for the achievement of corporate objectives and goals.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of this study the following research questions become desirable and were formulated;
- What role do effective leadership play in productivity.
- Does incentives lead to increase productivity
- What style of leadership would effect increase in productivity
- What role does communication play in productivity?
This study hypothesis as stated below will be critically looked into and analysed properly.
- Workers productivity increases when they evaluate themselves in comparison with the impact of leadership styles obtained in comparable organisation.
- The more workers are satisfied with the very task involve in their job, the more their productivity.
- The workers productivity tend to be high when the appropriate monetary remuneration on the job.
- Workers productivity increases when the leadership style is effective.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The issue of leadership is pivotal to the corporate existence of any organisation. In view of the above this study become necessary, for it aims at assessing the role of leadership in the productivity, the benefits derive from leadership styles and who benefits from it. It will also bring into focus the type of leadership strategy that might be adopted in order to maximize results when working with people.
It is also hope that findings from this study will be of tremendous use to both the staff and managers of corporation. It will improve their relationship, thereby creating a conducive atmosphere for increased productivity.
Furthermore, the research work shall be of use to those who wish to carryout future research in this topic or related topic.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research work shall centre primarily on indices of leadership styles and it impact on the productivity of Zenith Bank employees. This study shall investigate to know how these indices, or styles quantitatively affect workers productivity; but the provision of conducive working condition shall be assumed to be the same in a high productivity.
- LIMITATION OF STUDY
This study was faced with so many limitation which include time constraints, inadequate fund to conduct the research, lack of materials and lack of cooperation from some respondents who refused to bring to light certain information that may probe or question their personal interest and that of their organisation.
1.8 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY
For a better understanding and clarity purpose this research work shall be organized into five chapters.
Chapter one will contain the following: Introduction, statement of the problem, the objectives of study, Research questions, Hypothesis, Significance of the Study, Scope of the Study, Limitation of Study, Organisation of the Study, Definition of Terms.
Chapter two will centre on literature review, which contains management functions, theories of leadership, leadership styles, concept of leadership, managing subordinates in organisation. The concept of performance and performance evaluation.
Chapter three is the Research Methodology.
In chapter four, all the data collected is presented, analysed and interpreted through the use of tables and figures to fully explain the findings.
However, chapter five is the final stage which summarizes the whole write-ups, recommendation and their conclusion.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In the course of this study the following concept have been clarified for the purpose of clearing any doubt as to what the researcher meant by their application:
Productivity: This refers to the production or output per man-hour, that is the ratio of output to the effort expressed in man-hours.
Communication: Communication is a deliberate act in which someone (called source) passes or transmits information to a person or group of persons (receiver(s) with the intent to change their behaviour.
Leadership: This is a process of influencing people or group of people in a particular situation, at a given point in time, and in a specific set of circumstances to stimulate them to strive willingly and direct their efforts towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives.
Managers: This refers to persons in organisation who accomplish their work primarily by directing the work of others by performing all or any of the functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
Management: This is the process of getting things done through people.
Blanchard, Kenneth: The one minute manager builds High performing Team, William Morrow and Coy Inc. London.
Byham, William C.: How to improve productivity and Employee satisfaction Zapp: the lightening of employment. Pub. Ballantine Books, Texas, 1988.
Hicks and Gullet: Management Mcgrour – Hill Singapore (1981).
Liversey Frank and Greyson Shaun: Management and Organisation, Pub. William Heinemann Ltd, London 1983