Adebayo (1980) stated that Civil Service is not a creation of modern times.  It has roots in history and dates back to the times of the ancient civilization.  Pedicles, a reasoned leader in ancient Greece introduced a scheme for the compensation of officials, thus facilitating the continued participation in public administration  by citizens who had to work daily for their living.  The official appointed to administer the system was called chung-chung-that is impartial Judge – a for-runner of our present day Civil Service Commission.

The Nigerian Civil Service dates back to 1861 with the annexation of Lagos as a British possession and the establihment of a crown colony type of government. Therefore, the Nigerian Civil Service is the product of evolution.  It is an inheritance from our colonial masters.  In the past, it is known for its anonymity, impartiality security of tenure and non intervention in partisan policy.  The basic aim of establishing the Civil Service was manteance of law and order and the management of an extractive economy to produce raw materials to support British Industries.  The colonial Civil Service controlled decision making process of the government during the period until 1954 when the policy of the Civil Service were limited to advising on policy matters and implementation of government decisions.

According to Udenta (1999) The public Service Commission of the Eastern Region was set up in accordance with section 170 of the Nigerian constitution order in Council 1954 and held its first meeting on 29th November, 1954.  section 175 of the order as applied to a region by section 180 provides that the government may refer to this commission for their advice on any matter relating to the appointment of any person to an office in the public service or the dismissal or discipline control of officers in public service of the region.  The public service Commission Regulations, 1955 published as Easter Region Law Nigeria (ERLN)No.166 of 1955 came into operation on 21st July 1955.  with time it became necessary for the commission to further be divided and as such, on 25th February 1970, the East-Central State Public Service Commission was established in accordance with Nigerian Constitution.

The Anambra State of Nigeria Law No. 4, 1980 dated 15th February, 1980 and lited as the Stated Civil Service Commission.  By this enactment, the Public Service Commission was changed to Civil Service Commission.  This was published in the supplement to Anambra State of Nigeria Gazette No. 11, volume 5, dated 24th April, 1980.  at its establishment the secretarial of the commission comprised the following units.  Personal Administration, Recruitment and Statistics.  In August 27, 1991, Enugu State was created.  As a result of this, the former Anambra State Civil Service Commission was changed to Enugu State Civil Service Commission.  Today, the commission has six units departments converged into three namely: personnel / Administration Unit, Recruitment / Statistics / Accounts and Promotion units respectively.  The organizational chart of Enugu state Civil Service Commission is shown below.

According to OAU Obafemi Awolowo University Caleadar (1982/83).  The conceptual framework within which the University System has evolved in the last millennium can be summarized as follows: Community of scholars, seat of learning, center of liberal education, mother of the professions, agent of national or regional development, vehicle for the propagation of teaching advancement of knowledge through research and provisions of service to society? 

Pursuing these missions in varying degrees of mix, Nigerian Universities have differed in no respect from other Universities the world over.  The wording of enactments of the various Nigerian Institutions of higher learning reflect, often in a copious and liberal manner, this tripartite objective of teaching, research and service.  They serve as a constant reminder that universities have an important role to play in helping the citizenry to deepen and strengthen its understanding of ideas of truth and objectivity, integrity and the obligation of service, placed upon it by its possession of learning and through their living together, in a community with than their home environments men and women are able to grasp the values and standard needed to sustain the ethos of present day society”.

In line with the above statements, part 1 of the OD.Sno.3 of 1982, section 3 outlined that the objective of the University shall be

a.  To provide facilities for learning and to give instruction and training in such branches of knowledge as the university may desire to foster and in doing so as to enable students obtain the advantage of liberal education;

b.  To promote by research and other means the advancement of knowledge and its practical application to social, cultural economic, scientific and technological problems.

c.  To encourage the advancement of learning and to hold out to all persons without distraction of race, creed, sex or political conviction the opportunity of acquiring a higher and liberal education.

d.  To act as a vehicle of national development through applied research, technical assistance direct consultation, informational services and internship programmes.

e.  To provide innorative educational programmes of high standards regardless of the nature of the degree being produced as long as this has importance and relevance for state and national development;

f.  To meet the specific manpower needs of the nation;

For the carrying out of its objectives as specified in section 3 of the law, the University shall have power among other things.

To institute and award fellowships scholarships, bosaries, medals, prizes and other titles, distractions awards and forms of assistance;

To hold examinations and grants degrees, diplomas, certificate and other distinctions to persons who have pursued courses of study approved by the University and have satisfied such other requirements as the University may lay down.

To grant honorary degrees, fellowship, or academic titles.

It is obvious that the traditional role of the universities in Nigeria is manpower development relevant research, consultancy and extension services. However, in the content of a developing society with limited resources, it is necessary to take these concepts and objectives further and focus, at least on a clearly defined objective.  At this point in time, the need for establishing polytechnics began to be entertained in the minds of well-known Nigerians.

Aminu (1989) stressed the philosophy of polytechnics when he states that:

“it has for long been widely felt that the technological needs of Nigeria are not being appropriately met by the kind of engineers so far turned out only at the highest academic levels by our universities.  This type of technological manpower has needed extensive retraining and breaking-in to factory-life; it has also been top-heavy in the sense not necessarily of producing too many graduate engineers but of producing too few technicians and even fewer technologist without whom, even more than without the graduates, no self-sustaining industrial revolution is possible.”

Even more true is this of the management field the relevance of which in the engineering of human groups the country has yet to become fully aware.  In the private sector the upsurge of entreprenurialism in business a and agriculture of the post-civil war period is a trend that deserves the stongest encouragement as a mechamism for diverting some of our best techno-managerial manpower from the unhealthy hegemony of oil industry into a cadre of job-creating self-employed professionals who need only modest capital findings to start to tackle effectively the scandalous unemployment problems at the sub-professional levels.

Against this background, against the need to fashion a bread of technologists and engineers who can walk straight from the campus into the factory and feel at home, and against the background also of the lack of a requisite minimum technological milieu for the general public of the country that the polytechnics were established. What the nations expect from polytechnic is supplied research that is directed towards improving our technological base in order to faster industries, agricultural and economic development.  It is expected that research activities in the polytechnics will not only enhance scholarships but will also create opportunities for the institutions to be involved in reverse engineering, creativity and technology adaptation.  While for the purpose of scholarship, basic research is useful, polytechnics must attempt not to proliferate the efforts of the conventional universities but stress practical application of utilitarian aspects of their research; the objectives of the polytechnics therefore are:

1.  The devising of progrmmes and the training of the right types and cadres of manpower for the industrialization of a West African community this implies meeting needs over a spectrum of disciplines and manpower levels as may from time to time be shows to exist; and

2.  Improving by vigorous extra-mural work the techno-centric orientation of our public who otherwise cannot but be a deadweight on efforts to industrialize.

In catering for these needs we must however be studiously wary of at least one error of the past: the technician and technologist must be encouraged to realize from the outset of their training that they are in no way second-rate to their colleagues in the universities or anywhere else.  There is a difference in aptitudes, training and orientation but the aim of a manpower factory is to exploit this diversity in riches most profitably.  That is all.  Remunerations thereafter are commensurate to training, responsibility and output; the technologist is not lower paid or inferior to the graduate per se.  (Institute of management and technology Calendar Vol.1. No.1, 1973 –1973). Section 2 (1) of Decree No. 33 states as follows:

The fuctions of each polytechnic shall be:-

a.  To provide full-time or part-time courses of instructions and training.

i.  In technology, applied science, eommerce and management; and

ii.  In such ofter fields of applied learning relevant to the needs of the development of Nigeria in the areas of industrial and agricultural production and distribution and for research in the development and adaptation of as the council may from time to time determine.

b.  To arrange conferences, seminars, and study groups relative to the field of learning specified in paragraph @ above;

c.  To perform such other functions as in the opinion of the council may serve to promote the objectives of the polytechnic.

The salary grade level disparity or discrepancy exist between the B.Sc or B A and HND holders at the beginning of employment and at the end in the salary structure of the Civil Service; thereby making HND certificate seem inferior to B.SC certificate, though both may have been obtained in the same field of knowledge and no differences exist in terms of the duration of study as well as the environment where the knowledge is acquired. This study therefore will find out whether this is a fact or fiction with the view of suggesting appropriate policy measures that will solve the problem.


Without fear of contradictions, polytechnic graduates feel marginalized in the scheme of things.  For instance, a HND graduate is regarded or classified as a subordinate to his collogue a university graduate with either B. Sc or B A qualification in the office.  In a situation where two or more persons are required to be employed in an office, the person with either B. Sc or B A qualification irrespective of the discipline would first be considered for employment before the person with HND certificate.  In the promotion exercise, the polytechnic graduate would be considered last after his university collogues have been considered. To this end, the researcher therefore aim towards finding out the following research problems.

i.  Is HND / B. Sc Certificates discriminated or is there any preference for B.Sc to HND?

ii.  Are there differences in salary grade levels of both certificates on assumption of duty?

iii.  Does any difference exist in the course contents of the courses offered in both institutions?

iv.  Can a B. Sc certificate holder perform better in the officer than a HND certificate holder?

v.  What are the career prospects of the HND and B. Sc certificate holders?

vi.  Is due recognition given to B. Sc certificate than HND certificate in Civil service?


This study has the following objectives to achieve:

1.  To ascertain management view of B.Sc and HND certificates in Civil Service.

2.  To identify the salary grade levels both certificates holders are placed on assumption of duty.

3.  To determine whether or not differences exist in the course contents / specifications of the courses offered in Nigerian Universities and polytechnics.

4.  To find out if a B. Sc certificate holder can coordinate activities in the office better than a HND certificate holder.

5.  To ascertain whether or not there exist differences in career prospects of the HND and B. Sc certificate holders.

6.  To determine whether due recognition is given to B. Sc certificate than HND certificate in Nigeria Civil Service.


To achieve the objective of this research work, the following questions will be answered:

i.  How does management perceive B.Sc and HND certificates in Civil Service?

ii.  What salary grade levels are B. Sc and HND certificate holders placed on assumption of duty?

iii.  Are there differences in the course contents / specifications of the courses offered in Nigeria Universities and Polytechnics?

iv.  Can a personnel with B. Sc certificate coordinate activities in the officer better than the HND certificate holders?

v.  Are there differences in career prospects of the HND and B.Sc certificate holders?

vi.  Is due recognition given to B. Sc certificate than HND certificate in Nigerian Civil Service?


This study will alert the graduates of different institutions in Nigeria of the disparity and discrepancies that exist between HND and B. Sc or B A certificate holders in the civil service.  It is hoped that the study would go a long way in embracing graduates from different institutions of higher learning to receive equal treatments anywhere in Nigerian civil service to obtain high level of productivity. The research is expected to be of immense benefit to all government parastatals, agencies, ministries, departments, local government councils, institutions, private sectors, individuals and the general public. Also, the study would provide a basis for further research by other researchers who will auqument this present study.