MARINE POLLUTION AND CONTROL IN NIGERIAN PORTS A CASE STUDY OF PORT HARCOURT RIVERS STATE

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MARINE POLLUTION AND CONTROL IN NIGERIAN PORTS A CASE STUDY OF PORT HARCOURT RIVERS STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The internationally recognized definition for the marine environment was developed by Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine
Environmental Protection (GESAMP), currently known as Aspects Of Marine Environmental Protection, which states: ‘Introduction by man,
directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harm
to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing, impairment of quality for use of sea-water, and
reduction of amenities’. Marine pollution is classed as point source or non-point source. Point source pollution occurs when there is a single,
identifiable, and localized source of the pollution. That is, “point source” means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance,
including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal
feeding operation, or vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. An example is directly discharging
sewage (i.e. water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, which is intended to be removed from a community, also known as
wastewater) and industrial waste into the ocean.
Non point source pollution occurs when the pollution comes from ill-defined and diffuse sources. It arises from a broad group of human
activities for which the pollutants have no obvious point of entry into receiving watercourses. Obviously, non-point source pollution is much
more difficult to measure, identify and control than point sources. These include agricultural storm water discharges and return flows from
irrigated agriculture, urban run (from roofs, streets, parking lots, etc), transportation (roads, railways, pipelines, hydro-electric corridors)
etc. Industries and businesses may discharge wastes to street gutters and storm drains. Overloading and malfunction of septic systems lead
to surface run.
Effects of Marine Pollution on coastal environment cum resources such as degradation, damage to ecosystems, damage to the esoteric
value of beaches, lethal and sub-lethal effects on marine fauna and flora etc. were elaborately discussed, using graphic and plate
illustrations to elucidate understanding. The paper concluded that marine pollution has enormous impact on our coastal resources and is
totally unavoidable due to Global population explosion and technological innovations by man. However, it was asserted that the problem
could be minimized through careful management. Pragmatic recommendations were therefore put forward on how to minimize the impact
of marine pollution on our coastal resources, with specific reference to Nigeria. The coastal environment generally refers to any piece of
land next to, bothering or adjourning the sea shore. The extent of the coastal environment also varies immensely, depending on the object
of the context within which it is being defined. Sometimes, it simply means the narrow linear corridor of shore line separating the
continental shelf from the oceanic land mass. At other times it may be considered to extend both largely inwards, towards the continental
shelf and outwards, farther away from the shore line towards the terrestrial land mass. For the purposes of evaluating marine pollution
sources and its effects on the coastal environment, the latter description is considered more suitable. Consequently, the coastal
environment can be said to transcend the shore line up to the exclusive economic zone seaward and across the estuarine and intertidal
zones to the lower reaches of the fresh water tributaries, sandy beaches and sometimes even arid continental land masses landwards,
where such bounds the world Seas and Oceans.

STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM

The menace of marine pollution has been on a geometric increase as a result of lack of adequate management of crude oil pipelines and
ships and other water ferries. This regrettable reoccurring incident has led to the death of aquatic life in Nigerian coastal waters while at the
same time causing environmental hazards to the residents of these communities. The continuous neglect of these problems has resulted to
environmental degradation which has led to societal unrest and residents result to violence in other to be heard by government thus
increasing insecurity in the Coastal areas of the country.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The major aim of the study is to examine the marine pollution and control in Nigerian ports. Other specific objectives of the study are;

  1. To examine the need for effective pollution control in Nigerian ports.
  2. To investigate the major causes of marine pollution in Nigerian ports.
  3. To examine the relationship between marine pollution and control in Nigerian ports.
  4. To investigate government efforts to controlling marine pollution in Nigerian ports.
  5. To recommend ways of reducing marine pollution and improving its control in Nigerian water ways.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is the need for effective pollution control in Nigerian ports?
  2. What are the major causes of marine pollution in Nigerian ports?
  3. What is the relationship between marine pollution and control in Nigerian ports?
  4. What are government efforts in controlling marine pollution in Nigerian ports?
  5. What are the ways of reducing marine pollution and improving its control in Nigerian water ways?

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: There is no significant relationship between marine pollution and control in Nigerian ports.
H1: There is a significant relationship between marine pollution and control in Nigerian ports.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study would be of immense importance towards the improvement of environmental conditions as it would improve the general health
of the Nigerian citizenry. The study would also be of immense importance towards the contribution of literature to the subject matter as it
would benefit students, scholars and researchers who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study is restricted to marine pollution and control in Nigerian ports using the port Harcourt Port in Rivers state.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or
information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on
the time devoted for the research work.

MARINE POLLUTION AND CONTROL IN NIGERIAN PORTS A CASE STUDY OF PORT HARCOURT RIVERS STATE

MARINE POLLUTION AND CONTROL IN NIGERIAN PORTS A CASE STUDY OF PORT HARCOURT RIVERS STATE