MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF CUT AND VENDED PINEAPPLE SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS

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ABSTRACT

Globally, more than 20 kinds of fruits are vended as minimally processed or fresh-cut fruits (FCFs). In Nigeria, pineapple (Ananas comosus) is among the commonest FCFs retailed and consumed regularly. However, the consumption of FCFs vended in open markets may constitute health risks owing to microbial contamination. This study assessed the bacteriological safety of pineapple fruits of vendors in the calabar  region of cross river state. ten pineapple samples, vendors  hand, knife and water swabs were randomly bought from five street vendors and analysed for bacterial contamination. Hand swab, knife swabs, from fruit vendors and fruit wash water revealed suggesting their involvement as potential sources of contamination of the fruits. Appropriate food safety measures for handlers and consumers of FCFs are thus recommended. From the  results of the heterotrophic bacterial count, staphylococcousspecies, total coliform an feacal coliform plate count  shows that the pineapple sample analysed ranged from 2.3 ×104  to 2.4 ×105 for TAC, and 1.5×104 to 1.8×105 for TEC, 2.0 ×104 TO 1.9×105 for TSC and 1.7 ×104  to  2.3 ×105  for TCC. The hand swab sample analysed ranged from 1.2 ×104  to 2.0 ×104 for TAC, and 1.1×104 to 1.6×104 for TEC, 1.1 ×104 to1.9×104 for TSC and 1.1 ×104  to  2.1 ×104  for TCC. The  knife swab sample analysed ranged from 1.1 ×104  to 1.9 ×104 for TAC, and 1.1×104 to 1.9 ×104 for TEC, 1.1 ×104 to1.6×104 for TSC and 1.1 ×104  to  2.0 ×104  for TCC. wash water swab sample analyzed ranged from 1.1 ×104  to 2.2 ×104 for TAC, and 1.1×104 to 2.2 ×104 for TEC, 1.1 ×104 to2.2 ×104 for TSC and 1.2 ×104  to  2.2 ×104  for TCC.  From The result obtained of the microbial evaluation indicates that vended pineapple fruits contain microbes to a certain degree and the need for improvement in the hygienic condition of locally marketed fruits (pineapple) cannot be over-emphasized, mainly when such organisms as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Sp, and other bacteria occur in high numbers which are known to be associated with food poisoning or infection. This may go a long way to reduce the number of the bacterial population by preventing or reducing the external parameters that result from long storage time and the unhygienic conditions which aid in the metabolism of bacteria which are of harmful effect to human health.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

CERTIFICATION                 –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii         

DEDICATION                       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

ABSTRACT   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v         

TABLE OF CONTENTS       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

LIST OF TABLES     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           x

LIST OF FIGURES               –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xi

CHAPTER ONE      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.0 INTRODUCTION          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.1 Background of Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2 Justification           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.3 Objective of the Study     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           3

CHAPTER TWO     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW         –           –           –           –           –           –           5

2.1 Origin and Distribution Of Pineapple       –           –           –           –           –           5

2.2 Nutritional Composition Of Pineapple     –           –           –           –           –           7

2.3 Health Benefits Of Pineapple       –           –           –           –           –           –           9

2.4 Utilization Of Pineapple/ Products Of Pineapple.            –           –           –           11

2.4.1food Uses            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           11

2.4.2 Other Uses         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           13

2.5 Food Borne Outbreaks Caused By Ready To Eat Fruits And Vegetables          15

2.6 Sources of Contamination            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

2.7 Alleviation/Prevention Of Food Borne Outbreak Caused By Ready     

to Eat Fruits And Vegetables –           –           –           –           –           –           26

CHAPTER THREE –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           29

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS          –           –           –           –           –           29

3.1 Study Area            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           29

3.2 Sources of Sample            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           29

3.3 Collection of Samples       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

3.4 Microbiological Analysis of the Samples  –           –           –           –           –           34

3.4.1 Serial Dilution of Samples         –           –           –           –           –           –           34

3.4.2 Enumeration of Microorganisms            –           –           –           –           –           32

3.5 Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Analysis        –           –           –           –           –           32

3.6 Statistical Analysis            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           33

CHAPTER FOUR    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION  –           –           –           –           –           –           34

4.1Result and Discussion of Microbial Analysis of Pineapple Hand Swab,

 Knife Swab and Water Swab            –           –           –           –           –           –           34

4.2 Result and Discussion of Ascorbic Acid  –           –           –           –           –           43

CHAPTER FIVE     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION          –           –           –           46

5.1 Conclusion –               –      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

5.2 Recommendation  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

REFERENCES          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

APPENDIX                –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           57