MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY OF BOLE (ROASTED PLANTAIN) SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA.

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The microbiological safety of roasted plantain sold in different locations in Calabar metropolis was investigated. Roasted plantain samples , hand swab, knife swab and water swab were purchased and collected from five different locations in Calabar metropolis namely; Goldie, Etagbor, Watt market, Mayne avenue and Ekpo Abasi at different period(morning and afternoon). Bole samples were analyzed for microbiological and proximate composition, while the hand swab, knife swab and water swab were analysed for microorganisms. Total Aerobic Count (TAC),Total Coliform Count (TCC), Total Escherichia Coli (TEC) and Total Staphylococcal Count (TSC) of bole samples, hand swab, knife swab and water swab were assessed by inoculating into different selective media such as Nutrient Agar (NA), MacConkey Agar (MCA),Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB)and Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) respectively and incubated at the desired temperature. The total aerobic count of bole ranged from 4.0 × 105 to 2.6 × 105 (CFU/g) in the morning and 5.1 × 105 to 2.5 × 105 (CFU/g) in the afternoon.The total coliform count ranged between 2.7 × 105 to 1.6 × 105 (CFU/g) in the morning and 4.0 × 105 to 2.5 × 105 (CFU/g) in the afternoon The total Escherichia coli count ranged between 2.7 × 103 to 1.3 × 103 (CFU/g) in the morning and 3.0 × 10to 2.4 × 103 (CFU/g) in the afternoon The Staphylococcus aureus count ranged between 0.8 × 105to  0.5 × 105 (CFU/g) in the morning and 0.8 × 105 to 1.7 × 105 (CFU/g) in the afternoon Result showed that roasted plantain (Bole) sold in the afternoon were not safe for human consumption, when compared with the ones sold in the morning and therefore the need for improved sanitary practices.

CHAPTER ONE

Title page                    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Certification    –           –           –           –           –           –           –                       –           ii         

Dedication                  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii        

Acknowledgments      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv        

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of contents        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi        

List tables        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           x

List of figures             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xi

List of plates   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xii

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                                      1

1.0 INTRODUCTION                                                                                              1

1.1 Background of Study                                                                                           2

1.2 Justification of the Study                                                                                     2

1.3 Objective of the Study                                                                                         3

CHAPTER TWO                                                                                                     4

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                 4

2.1 Origin and Distribution of Plantain                                                                      4

2.1.1 False Horn Plantain                                                                                            8         

2.1.2 True Horn Plantain                                                                                             9         

2.1.3 French Plantain                                                                                                  10

2.2 Composition of Plantain Fruit                                                                              11       

2.3 Nutritional Benefits of Plantains                                                                          13

2.4 Processing of Plantains                                                                                         14

2.4 Utilization of Plantains                                                                                         15

2.4.1 Food Uses                                                                                                          15

2.4.2 Non-Food Uses                                                                                                  19

2.5 Foodborne Outbreaks Caused By Ready to Eat Foods                                       19

2.5.1 Bacteria in RTEs                                                                                                20

2.5.2 Fungi in RTEs                                                                                                    22

2.5.3 Parasites in RTEs                                                                                               22

2.5.4 Viruses in RTEs                                                                                                 24

2.6 Potential Sources of Contamination of RTEs                                                       25

2.6.1 Quality of Ingredients                                                                                       26

2.6.2 Contaminated Food Process Chain                                                                   26

2.6.3 Unhygienic Vending Practices and Conditions                                                 27

2.7 Prevention of Foodborne Outbreaks Caused By Ready to Eat Foods and Future Perspectives                                                                                                             28

2.7.1 Integration of Control Approaches                                                                    28

2.7.2 Effective Surveillance and Monitoring of Foodborne Pathogens in RTES                  29

2.7.3 Building Food Safety Expertise for Monitoring and Control of Food Contaminants  30

2.7.4 Regulations: Setting and Enforcement                                                              31

2.7.5 Protection of Consumer Rights                                                                         31

CHAPTER THREE                                                                                                 33       

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                                      33

3.1 Study Area                                                                                                            33

3.2 Sources of Sample                                                                                                33

3.3 Collection of Samples                                                                                           35

3.4 Microbiological Analysis of the Samples                                                              35

3.4.1 Serial Dilution of Samples                                                                                 35

3.4.2 Media and Sterilization                                                                                      35

3.4.3 Pour Plating                                                                                                       36

3.4.4 Incubation                                                                                                          37

3.5 Proximate Analysis                                                                                               37

3.5.1 Determination of Moisture Content                                                                  37

3.5.2 Determination of Ash Content                                                                          37

3.5.3 Determination of Protein                                                                                   38

3.5.4 Determination of Fat                                                                                         38

3.5.5 Determination of Fibre                                                                                      39

3.5.6 Determination of Carbohydrate                                                                         39

3.6 Statistical Analysis                                                                                                40

CHAPTER FOUR                                                                                                    41

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS                                                                                 41

4.1   Results                                                                                                                            41

4.1.1 Result of Proximate Composition Of Bole Sold At Different Locations

During Different Period.                                                                                                        47

4.1.2 Result of Microbiological Analysis of Bole Sold at Different Locations                     47

4.1.3 Result of Microbiological Analysis of Hand Swab Collected at Different Locations   48

4.1.4 Result of Microbiological Analysis of Knife Swab Collected at Different Locations   49

4.1.5 Result of Microbiological Analysis of Water Swab Collected at Different Locations  50

4.2 Discussion                                                                                                                         51

4.2.1 Discussion of Proximate Composition of Bole Sold at Different Locations                51

4.2.2 Discussion of Microbiological Analysis of Bole, Hand swab, knife swab and water swab collected at Different Locations                                                                                52

CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                                                 54

5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                                      54

5.1 Conclusion                                                                                                                        54

5.2 Recommendations                                                                                                54

REFERENCES                                                                                                                    55

APPENDIX                                                                                                                            64

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: World production of banana and plantain in 2007.                                                  5

Table 2: Nutritional Composition of Plantain.                                                                        12

Table 3: Proximate Composition of Bole Sold At Different Locations during

Different Period.                                                                                                         41

Table 4: Mean Microbial Count of Bole Sold At Different Locations during different

Period                                                                                                                          43

Table 5: Mean Microbial Count of Hand Swab Collected at Different Locations during

Different Period.                                                                                                         44                           

Table 6: Mean Microbial Count of Knife Swab Collected at Different Locations during Different Period                                                                                                 45

Table 7: Mean Microbial Count of Water Swab Collected at Different Locations during Different Period                                                                                                 46

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1: Processing of plantain flour                                                                              14

Fig 2: Flowchart showing production of Bole                                                            17       

Fig 3: Sampling location and accessibility map of study locations                            34

LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1: False Horn Plantains                                                                                      8

Plate 2: True Horn Plantains                                                                                       9         

Plate 3: French horn Plantain                                                                                      10

Plate 4: Roasting of bole in Goldie                                                                             18