MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE IN ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (ESUT)
This research study focused on motivation and performance in the Enugu
State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu. The study tried
to identify the following problematic issues: what are the importance of
motivation and performance to the staff of ESUT? What are the factors
hindering motivation and performance in ESUT? And in line with this, the
researcher in the study tried to achieve the objectives of identifying the
importance of motivation and performance to staff of ESUT, examining the
problems hindering motivation and performance in the University. In doing
this, the researcher adopted the multiple interacting factor theory by
Sutermeister as the theoretical framework of this work. The following
hypotheses were raised: high productivity and job satisfaction can be
achieved through motivation and performance in an organization,
motivation and performance in an organization are hindered by socioeconomic
factors within that organization, and motivation and performance
in an organization can be boosted through training and reward system.
Questionnaire and documentations were used as the method of data
collection for this work; chi-square statistical instrument, simple
percentage and mean were used in analyzing the collected data. Some of
the findings in ESUT are: that visions should be shared in organizations,
that appropriate reward system should be attached, that training should be
encouraged. Finally, we can conclude that, one of the primary tasks of the
authorities of ESUT is to motivate the staff to perform at high levels. This
means getting them to work hard, to be at work regularly, and to make
positive contribution to the University’s goals, missions and objectives.
However, to reach that higher level, the staff of the University must want to
do the job (motivation) be able to do the job (ability), and have the right
materials to do the job (environment). Thus tend to show that job
performance depends on ability, the environment and motivation.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Certification Page ii
Approval Page iii
Table of Content vii
List of tables: viii
Tab. 2.1: Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of human needs 14
Tab. 3.1: The Organogram of Enugu State University of Science and
Technology, (ESUT) 27
Tab. 4.1: Sex of the respondents 29
Tab. 4.2: Ages of the respondents 29
Tab. 4.3: Grade levels of the respondents 29
Tab. 4.4: Marital Status of the respondents 30
Tab. 4.5: Educational qualifications of the respondents 30
Tab. 4.6: The extent to which high productivity and job satisfaction
can be achieved through motivation and performance in
an organization. 32
Tab. 4.7: The extent to which motivation and performance are
hindered in ESUT by socio-economic factors within the
Tab. 4.8: The extent to which motivation and performance in ESUT
can be boosted through training and reward system. 42
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
1.4 Significance of the Study 4
1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study 4
2.0 Literature Review and Research Method 6
2.1 Literature Review 6
2.1.4 Hypothesis 17
2.1.5 Operational definitions. 18
2.1.6 Theoretical Framework 18
2.1.7 Methodology 19
2.1.10 Method of Data Collection 21
2.1.12 Method of Data Analysis 21
3.0 The Study Area/General Information 22
4.0 Data Presentation/Analysis 28
5.0 Summary, Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion 49
1.1 Background of the Study
People work for a wide variety of reasons. Some want
money, some want challenge, and some want security.
The things that each unique individual in organization
decides that he or she wants from work plays an
instrumental role in determining motivation to work. But
some do not know what they want.
Employee motivation represents one of the largest competitive
reserves and a key element for increasing competitive advantage of any
organization. Motivation is a central force and strong factor in employee
performance. It is the energizing force that induces or compels and
maintains behaviour. Human behaviour is motivated, it is goal directed.
It is not easy to motivate an individual, for the success of any
motivational effort depends on the extent to which the motivator meets the
needs of the individual employees for whom it is intended. Motivation is an
internal psychological process whose presence or absence is inferred from
According to Nwachukwu (1988:181), motivated behaviour has three
(a) It is sustained – It is maintained for a long time until satisfied.
(b) It is goal directed – It seeks to achieve an objective.
(c) It results from felt need – an urge directed towards a need!
A need creates a tension in the individual who moves in a certain
direction in order to achieve the desired objective which reduces the
tension. A satisfied need does not motivate, conversely, an unsatisfied need
motivates. Therefore, to motivate an employee in order to boost his or her
performance, management must create real or imagined need for the
employee to aspire to. A real need could be a desire to achieve through
promotion, increase in images or employment of increased organizational
favours, such as company cars with a chauffeur. Imagined needs of a staff
could be an aspiration to have coffee at 10 am which is the entitlement of
successful executives, to have a secretary, have someone carry his briefcase
upstairs, have someone run into the office at the sound of the bell or
visitors fill papers before they enter into his office. Based on these, since
every employee has needs, he is capable of being motivated. The task of
management is to determine what is the valued needs that will make him
react according to organizational desires – increased productivity.
The Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) is one of
the Universities in Enugu State. It was formerly called the Anambra State
University of Science and Technology (ASU TECH.) until 1991 when Enugu
State was created out Anambra State. Most of these staff contributes poorly
or at low capacity level due to the absence of motivation towards the
achievement of the goals and objectives of the University and to make the
University a force to reckon with in Enugu State and Nigeria as a whole.
To that extent, it is in the light of the above that the researcher deemed
it fit to research into motivation and performance in an organization: A case
study of the Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT).
A number of factors such as Economic, Sociological, Managerial and
Personnel’s problems have been said to militate against motivation in
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the major problems confronting the Enugu State University of
Science and Technology authority is that of motivating her workers to
perform assigned tasks to meet or surpass predetermined standards of the
University as a seat of academic heights. Harry (1973) made a very
interesting observation about an unmotivated employee and his or her level
of task performance thus:
The characteristics of a Jackass are stubbornness,
stupidity, willfulness and unwillingness to go to where
some one is driving them. These, by interesting
coincidence, are also characteristics of the unmotivated
An unmotivated employee is a threat to the organization. When an
employee fails to achieve a goal or perceive that he cannot achieve a goal,
he feels frustrated, thereby affecting his performance in the organization. It
is against this background that these questions are found relevant to guide
the present research effort.
(a) What are the importance of motivation and performance of the
staff of ESUT?
(b) What are the factors hindering motivation and performance of the
staff of ESUT?
(c) What are the measures to boost motivation and performance of
the staff of ESUT?
1.3 Objective of the Study
In the light of the foregoing, therefore the general objective of this
research study is to determine the effect of motivation on performance in
ESUT . The specific objectives are:
(a) To identify the importance of motivation and performance in
(b) To determine the factors hindering motivation and performance in
(c) To identify measures to boost motivation and performance in
1.4 Significance of the Study
The research study on motivation and performance a study of the
Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) was hinged on
the following reasons.
a) The Importance of motivation and performance in an
organization, appraising the Enugu State University of
Science and Technology cannot be overemphasized. This is
because the essence of all the motivational efforts in an
organization is to increase employee productive
performance. So, this research work would be of great
benefit to organization with regard to motivation and
appraisal of the work performance of their staff.
b) The research study would be of immense benefits to
students’ undergraduates and graduates, who are kin in
researching into motivation and performance in an
organization. Knowledge of this would further broaden their
academic mentality in relation to personnel management.
c) The research study would also be of benefit to other
researchers who are researching in motivation and
performance in organizations. The challenges in this
research work would pose as opportunities for further
research into the subject matter of this work.
d) Organizations, managers, directors, policy formulators,
university authorities, etc would gain a lot if they are aware
of the factors that spur or inhibit motivation and
performance in organizations.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research study focuses on motivation and performance. A study
of the Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT). It would
essentially focus on factors promoting motivation and performance in
ESUT, the problems that hinder motivation and performance in ESUT, and
the measures to boost motivation and performance in ESUT. We would also
limit the scope of the study to the period between 1999 – 2007.
In line with the limitation of the study, the researcher encountered
certain constraints. One of such is financial constraints.
Another is the lack of sufficient time needed to achieve the full essence of
the research study. Also the access to information about the level and
nature of motivation and performance in ESUT is to a large extent loosely