NEWSPAPER AND TELEVISION AS AN AGENT OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

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NEWSPAPER AND TELEVISION AS AN AGENT OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

ABSTRACT

This work is designed to study how dwellers use Newspaper and Television messages to effect social change.
It is pertinent to note that Newspapers, though rarely find their way into Adaba Community, only those who work in UzoUwani Local Government Headquarter and those who are opportune to visit Urban areas, such as Enugu, Onitsha, Nsukka town,
but a few, some times come home with few copies of these Newspapers on an irregular basis. Moreover, even the readership of
these Newspapers is strongly affected by the high illiterate rate of the in of this Community.
Television sets, on the other hand, are owned only by wealthy individuals that can afford both television sets and the Electric
generating plants which are required to operate the sets, or the chargeable motor batteries which are sometimes needed in place of
generating plants. Therefore, to this community, television ownership is not confined to the literate class as many illiterate but
well-to-do villagers own television as luxury goods capable of providing relaxation from the stresses of daily life. In this mass
media organization and management lecture, Okenwa maintains that:
Most Yoruba people purchase television sets not just for luxury of it, but for the sake of Babasala’s drama which provides an
excellent comic relief to the Yoruba man affect his activities during this study shows the pattern of interaction between Newspaper
and Television massages as agent of social development of Adaba Community.
Previous researchers in this field confirmed themselves to the study of the relationship between Urban and Rural areas in
terms of media exposure. But this study distinguishes itself by studying a completely rural community such as Adaba Community.
Writers in this field, such as Everett Roger emphasize: that interpersonal communication channels are inadequate for reaching
the huge peasant audiences of the less developed countries even when these channels are provided at the village level by
government change agents.

INTRODUCTION:

In the few decades scientific and technological progress has imparted a truly mass character to information. Suice it to say
that in 1950 only five counties broadcast television programmes in the world, today 120 do so. Over the same period, the number of
television sets reaching 700 million, wile the number of television viewers rose to 2,500 millions.3
Also the 1960s are marked by a rapid emergence of the latest sophisticated mass medium video technology. It has been
estimated that there are 30 – 40 million video tape recorders and hundreds of millions of recorded video cassettes in homes all over
the world, and these numbers are rapidly growing.4
In short, the rapid scientific and technological progress in communication has created new situation, that for the first time in
history the vast majority of the countries of the world have become the object of information and propaganda.5 One night even say
that today information has penetrated all spheres of social and even private life with the need to be informed having become one
of man’s basic needs.
It is in recognition of the importance of mass information for mankind’s progress that the United Nations proclaimed the year
1983 the “international year of communication”. The main purpose of this move was to draw the attention of the international
community to the needs of the developing countries which suffer from an acute shortage of information for accelerating their
social progress
As this study revalues around “development|” One can view the concept of development to mean different things to different
people.
To the first world, development suggests a process of improving structures, or creating new structures. It is in line with this
thinking that the United State government started the development of nations abroad.
To them (U.S), it means Using Organizations to develop other nations. In developing countries such as Nigeria, the United State
for information Agency (USIA), is used in development communication.
The second world (maxist) see development as a means of ideological or geopolitical expectation for the third world countries,
whose characteristics include, relatively low per capital income a high rate of illiteracy, agriculturally based economy, short life
expectancy, low degree of social mobility, a strong attachment to traditions, and a history of colonization.
Some writers see development as most important in the sphere of international communication. They pass this judgment
because almost all activities of the third world governments are attached to development in a manner. They also see the mass
media as an instrument for development, no matter who owns the media (private of government).
It is pertinent to note that development depends on the political framework of a generation. The degree of freedom enjoyed by
the mass media is related to the political structure of a generation. Because these writers see the mass media as an instrument of
development, they try to use the mass media to achieve the national developmental goal.
International bodies like UNESCO, look at development as helping the third world nation to develop.
An organization like UNESCO seems to be supporting the third world demand for the New World information and
communication order (NWICO), parthy as its perception of the conception of communication. In other worlds, UNESCO seems to
accept the view that communication as well as other things forms part of development in the third world.
Despite this absence of a consensual definition of development, few contemporary writers fail to recognize that development
is not synonymous with economic growth. “Starting an under is no longer considered the only way to effect the development of
underdeveloped countries. The frequent occurrence of growth without development in the past and present of the now
undeveloped countries is a fact while has led critical writers to urge that development be not confused, as it often is, with economic
growth 10. Poverty, inequality, unemployment, redistribution of income, along with other factors, now enjoy pride of place
alongside economic growth. Thus such definitions as a process of structural change, change in the technical, economic, political
and social arrangements by which resources distributed in a society, towards the end of providing the mass of the secure, healthy
and satisfying life,11 would appear to be much more acceptable because taken by some writers and researchers in the
development field towards extricating development studies from the clutches of conventional-ism, and apparent shortsightedness.
Whichever way development is defined, there existing remarkable agreement on the view that certain countries of the world
desperately need to acquire all or at least most of the attributes of development in virtually every aspect of the lives of their
peoples.
On this note, when one utilizes the Newspaper and television to effect social changes or creating high responses to economic
development, one socio-economic group must be identified and treated. This group are the rural dwellers, predominantly
illiterates.
It is in consideration of his socio-economic group that his study intends, though a systematic and quantitative method to show how
rural dwellers responds to Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu State has been chosen as a rural town, based on Renald
Frankenberg’s criteria for classifying communities. According to him; community implies having something in common. In the early
use of the world, it meant having goods in common. Those who live in a community have overriding economic interests which are
the same or complementary. They work together and also play and pray together. Their common interest in things gives them a
common interest in each other.
They quarrel with each other but are never indifferent to each other. They form a group of people who meet frequently face-to-face,
although this may mean they are up back-to-back. That people in such an area of social life turn their backs on each other is not a
matter of chance. In a community even conflict may be a form of co-operative 12.
On this note, Adaba with an estimated 4,585 registered voters in 1979, is a typical rural community. It comprises 12 villagers out of
which 4 villages are considered. They are Umuezeakwu, Aniocha, Amaetiti, and Amokwe. Adaba is 21/2 kilometers from the Local
Government Headquarters – Umulokpa. The inhabitants of Adaba are mainly farmers and petty traders. The “ADABA” and “DUU”
River and other seasonal streams provide them with fertile banks for farming.
Although the inhabitants have exceeded the UNESCO mark of a radio set per 100 persons, the traditional mode of communication
is still in force in the community. In other words, the community still relies on the town and village criers fro information.
Furthermore, Newspapers, though very chap, rarely and their way into this county. Only those who work in the Local Government
Headquarters sometimes come home with few copies of these newspaper on an irregular basis. Television sets on the overhand are
owned only by rich families that can afford both television sets and the electric generating plant which are required to operate the
sets. This study considers Adaba as a replica of a rural setting for substantiating the assumption about media messages.

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

The study tries to find out whether the assumptions (hypotheses) could be supported through the available data, and possibly give
recommendations to government so as to raise the rural area to an urban status.
In other words, various governments have been neglecting rural communities in the country. As a result, rural dwellers find life
very difficult to contain. The effect of this is that, there is “urban pull” and “rural puss” – inhabitants of the rural area migrate to
the urban towns, thereby increasing the urban population. With regard to this trend, there are lots of social evil such as multiple
maladjustment in the rural areas.
Also to be examined in this study is the role played by these media (Newspaper and television) in raising the rural community
awareness of development projects.
The importance of this present study will be to show the pattern of inter-connection between Newspaper and television message as
agent of social development of Adaba community.
For instance, agriculture is mostly practiced in the rural areas of Nigeria. These rural areas lack electricity and are therefore
seemingly denied the use of some media like cinema and television.
With regard to this, farmers apparently find it difficult to be exposed to new farming techniques and newly advertised farm
products in the newspapers and televisions

NEWSPAPER AND TELEVISION AS AN AGENT OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

NEWSPAPER AND TELEVISION AS AN AGENT OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT