NIGER DELTA CRISIS ON SOCIO-POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA

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NIGER DELTA CRISIS ON SOCIO-POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF OHAJI/EGBEMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Approval Page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Dedication      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Acknowledgement –      –      –      –      –      –      iv

Abstract –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      v

Table of contents    –      –      –      –      –      –      vi-viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      1

1.1  Background of the Study       –      –      –      –      1-6

1.2  Statement of the Problem     –      –      –      6

1.3  Objectives of the Study  –      –      –      –      7

1.4  Research Question  –      –      –      –      –      8

1.5  Statement of Hypothesis –      –      –      –      8

1.6  Significance of the Study       –      –      –      –      9

1.7  Scope of the Study –      –      –      –      –      10

1.8  Limitation of the Study  –      –      –      –      10

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  Literature Review    –      –      –      –      –      11

2.1  Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      11-35

2.2  The concept of Ethnic Militia  –      –      –      36-38

2.3  Impact of the crisis on the Economy     –      39-49

  • Educational Implication of the Crisis –      50-51
  • Efforts of the Government towards the Crisis 52-53

References      –      –      –      –      –      –      54-55

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Research Design and Methodology –      –      56

3.1  Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      56

3.2  Research Design     –      –      –      –      –      56

3.3  Sources/Methods of Data Collection      –      –      57

3.4  Population and Sample Size   –      –      –      57

3.5  Sample Technique  –      –      –      –      –      58

3.6  Validity and Reliability of Measuring             –

Instrument    –      –      –      –      –      –      58

3.7  Methods of Data Analysis      –      –      –      –      59-60

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Presentation and Analysis of Data  –      –      61

4.1  Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      61

4.2  Presentation of data       –      –      –      –      –      61

4.3  Analysis of Data     –      –      –      –      –      62

4.4  Test of Hypothesis  –      –      –      –      –      63

4.5  Interpretation of Result(s)     –      –      –      64-68

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations      -69

5.1  Summary of Findings     –      –      –      –      69-70

5.2  Conclusion      –      –      –      –      –      –      72

5.4  Recommendation    –      –      –      –      –      73-75

References      –      –      –      –      –      –      76

Appendix –      –      –      –      –      –      –      77

Questionnaires –      –      –      –      –      –      78-81

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Niger Delta region is located in the Southern part of Nigeria. The  region is characterized by Swamps and high rainforest but through which the Niger River flows into the Atlantic Ocean multiple estuaries. The Niger Delta region is Nigeria’s treasure base. It represents the country’s economic heartbeat endeared with petroleum often referred to as the precious black-gold which earns over 90% of the country’s revenue. For over five decades, all the oil exploration and exploitation in the country had taken place within this region.

Expectedly, the occupation of the inhabitants of this region is predominantly farming and fishing taking advantage of the presence of the rich rainforest and large body of water.

According to Abati (2009:54) Nigeria Delta refers to the states of Cross River, Ondo, Imo, Abia, Edo, Rivers, Bayelsa, Akwa Ibom and Delta but more directly the last four states which face more peculiar problems. It is one of the largest wetland in the world and clearly, the largest in Africa.

It is a trite point that oil is important to the world as a major source of energy. Anywhere in the world where the vehicles tank is being filled with gasoline, or an engine is being run with diesel or any other fuel, a lantern or store is being  filled with kerosene, or any petroleum based product is being used, there is a linkage to a complex process that involves exploration, refining, high-tech engineering and technology, human and material resources, the politics of nations and the rights and expectations of human beings.

Nigeria is at the centre of this process as the sixth largest producer of oil in the world and the largest oil producing country in Africa.

Oil was first discovered in Nigeria in 1908 but commercial exploration did not commence until the discovery of oil in Olobiri (now in Bayelsa State) in march 1957 (Abati 2009:54).

 

Nigeria’s inability to develop local capacity in oil exploration and to acquire the required technology, has made it possible                                                                                                          for the multinational corporations engage in joint venture partnerships with it to get way with lopsided contractual agreements.

Nigeria is fully aware of its importance as an oil producing country and almost all the wealth that came the way of the country last fifty years (50 years) or more has been derived from oil.

However, before the discovery of oil in the Niger Delta, every region in Nigeria has means of generating wealth for development of their regions. There was great competition  among the regions to see which would surpass the other in terms of development.

But the discovery of oil and the oil boom suddenly put an end to this as all Nigeria wanted a share of the national cake.

In the 1963 constitution, derivation was fifty percent (50%) and federal government got only thirty percent (30%). The same constitution granted the ownership of the continental shelf to the regions. By 1966, this had been constructively jettisoned controlling Nigeria oil resources became the federal government’s compulsive obsession. The civil war further exposed the strategic value of the oil resources in Niger Delta and as the military seized control of power and politics, exercising control over oil and revenue became a major task. In 1970, derivation had been reduced to forty five percent. (45%).

In 1975, it was further reduced to twenty five percent (25%). In 1981, the shagari administration took it all the way down to five percent (5%). It later went down to three percent (3%) under the Babangida administration.

In the 1999 constitution, derivation was fixed at thirteen percent (13%) on response to agitation by the oil producing communities.

Based on this development, youths in Obokafia, a community in Niger Delta region rose up with arms to struggle for the emancipation of their people in a bid to actualize the objectives of their struggle, different militia groups sprang up unfortunately, these groups resorted to violence instead of making demands.

Since the violence or crisis broke up, the polity has been restive. Komolate (2009:72) in his contribution about the crisis in  Niger Delta region assets:

Deaths are simply counted in dozen and displaced places in thousand news papers are awah with photographs of helpless children, old men and women who have been displaced. These defencess folks are fleeing the sports where solders are bathing it out with militants.

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