NUTRIENT COMPOSITION AND ORGANOLEPTIC ATTRIBUTES OF FRESH AND SUN-DRIED Carica papaya L and Solanum macrocarpon L FRUIT SOUPS CONSUMED BY TIV, BENUE STATE ()
The study determined nutrient composition and organoleptic attributes of fresh and sundried carica papaya L pawpaw (Mbuer) and solanum macrocrpon L.garden egg (Mngishim) fruit soups consumed in Tiv communities of Benue State, Nigeria. Processing, preparation and utilization of fresh and sundried pawpaw and garden egg fruits for soup production information was obtained from focus group discussion (FGD).The recipes used for the work was based on t mean values after (FGD). The fruits were sundried for 72h, cooked with ground egusi, beniseed and groundnut seeds as thickeners. Proximate and micronutrient were determined using standard analytical procedures. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Duncan,s new multiple range test at 5% probability was used to separate and compare means and was accepted at (p≤0.05) for the organoleptic test. Proximate composition for fresh uncooked pawpaw fruits had higher moisture (72.57%), carbohydrate (20.55%), crude fibre (2.68%), protein (1.65%), ash (1.45%) and fat (1.10%) relative to those of garden egg fruits 90.54, 3.92, 2.55, 1.52, 1.36 and 0.11%, respectively. Dehydration increased nutrient values for garden egg fruits relative to pawpaw fruits. Sun drying increased iron (0.60mg), magnesium (63.23%), phosphorus (98.76mg) and sodium (26.58mg) values to pawpaw fruit. Iron (0.46mg), zinc (0.63mg), magnesium (53.25mg), phosphorus (103.29mg) and sodium (24.19mg) values increased in garden egg fruit. Vitamin profile for fresh and sun dried pawpaw and garden egg fruits had differences. Dehydration decreased β-carotene, thiamin and vitamin C values for pawpaw. It increased thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and pyridoxine values for garden egg fruits. Proximate composition for soups based for these fruits showed that fresh unripe pawpaw and beniseeds as thickener (FPB) had the highest fat (15.86%), carbohydrate (8.50%), protein (4.63%), crude fibre (4.44%), ash (1.79%) and moisture (63.28%). The soups based on fresh garden egg soups and cooked with egusi (FGE) as thickener had highest nutrient profile. The soup based on sundried garden egg soup had varied nutrients relative to other soups. Sun dried pawpaw fruit and beniseed soup (DPB) had highest protein (5.86%), fat (15.25%) and fibre (5.66%).Sundried garden egg fruits soup with egusi (DGE) had highest value for protein
(5.67%) and ash (4.76%),each. The soups based on fresh and dried pawpaw and garden egg soups contain energy that ranged from 173.81-197.55kcal. Among the three soup thickeners, egusi had much more increased in minerals relative to those soups based on beniseed and groundnut FP and FG fruits soups. Groundnut caused more increased in garden egg fruit soups. Beniseed soup had more vitamin relative to those soups based on egusi and groundnut.The vitamins for fresh pawpaw soup with egusi increased much more in garden egg fruits soups. Vitamin profile for dehydrated fruits soups caused significant differences for pawpaw and garden egg soups. Dehydrated pawpaw and egusi DPE soup supplied 2.56% of RDA of calcium daily. The FPB and the FGE produced 15.72%, and 546.67% RDA thiamin needed daily. Comparison of nutrient densities for energy with FAO/WHO/UNU values per 1000kcal. The fresh and dried pawpaw and garden egg soups met over 70% protein.FPE had 88.11%, DPE had 95.38% and the FGE had 73.60%. Most of the values for Vitamin C, calcium and sodium met their requirement values. Scores for all organoleptic attributes of the twelve (12) soups were more than half. The FP and the FG soups scores from (5.63 to 8.17).The DP and DG based soups were from (5.23 to 7.47) of the nine hedonic. The soups were generally acceptable. The FGE and the DGE soups were the most preferred by the panelist.