NUTRIENTS, PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, ADANSONIA DIGITATA, SESAMUM INDICUM, CASSIA TORA LEAVES, THEIR HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY AND LIPID PROFILE IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS ()
The study investigated the nutrients and phytochemical compositions of some leafy vegetables in Nigeria (Hibiscus cannabinus, Adansonia digitata, Sesamum indicum and Cassia tora leaves) and the effects of their extracts on blood glucose and lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Two kilogrammes of each of the vegetables were bought fresh, sorted by removing extraneous material, washed with deionized water and separately pulverized using Gallenkamp mixer Kenwood –MPR 201. A half of the vegetables was used for chemical analysis and a half for methanol extract production. Standard methods were used to determine in triplicate the proximate, some minerals, vitamins, antinutrients, food toxicants, and phytochemical constituents of the fresh leaves and their methanol extracts. Animal study was carried out to ascertain the effect of the nutrients on blood glucose and lipid profile of alloxan- induced diabetic rats. Forty five male adult albino rats (150-200g) divided into nine groups of five rats each on basis of body weights were used for the study. The group of rats fed rat chow and glibanclamide drug served as standard control. The other groups were fed rat chow and graded doses of each vegetable extract (500mg and 1000mg/kg bodyweight) daily for twelve days. Water was given ad libitum. The proximate principles were lower in the fresh leaves than in the extract except for crude fibre. The leaves had 80.20% – 95.09% moisture, 1.62% – 3. 89% protein, 0.05% – 0.06% fat, 0.06% – 1.35% ash, 1.56% – 4.16 crude fibre and 1.04% – 13.71% carbohydrate. Mineral values were 236.68 – 437.11mg sodium, 0.87 – 2.67mg potassium, 0.63 – 4.97mg calcium, 172.50 – 235.70mg phosphorus, 0.51 – 0.59mg zinc, 0.26 – 0.59mg iron, 3.37 – 3.44mg copper and 0.24 – 0.28mg magnesium. The leaves contained 11.57 – 22.28 µg beta carotene, 1.25 – 2.88mg thiamin, 0.87 – 2.82mg riboflavin, 15.60 – 29.37mg vitamin C, niacin 0.74 – 1.61mg and 25.89 -31.43mg vitamin E. All the vegetables had traces of oxalate, 0.01mg – 0.05mg phytate, 0.37mg – 0.43mg tannins.