PARENTAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC VARIABLES AND SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS IN YAKURR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study was to examine parental socio-economic variables and academic performance of students in economics in Yakurr Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to determine the relationship between parental level of income, parental level of education, parental occupation and parental involvement. To achieve these objectives, four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Relevant literature were reviewed from documents in line with the variables of the study. Correlational survey research design was adopted. The population consisted 6,349 senior secondary two (SS II) students. A sample of 200 students was randomly selected and used for the study. Two instruments such as “Students Parental Socio-Economic Variables Questionnaire” (SPSEVQ) and Economics Achievement Test (EAT) were constructed by the researcher for data, collection. The collected data was scored, coded and analysed using simple percentage while the four hypothesis were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation, independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance at 0.05 level of significance. The result of analysis revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between parental level of income, parental occupation, parental involvement and academic performance of students in the study area and also, there is no significant influence of educational level of parents on academic performance of students in the study area.  Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended among others that children from low income parents should be given grants to help supplement their need and enhance their academic performance, also jobs opportunities should be provided to the unemployed parents.     

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        I

CERTIFICATION         –        –        –        –        –        –        II

DEDICATION     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        III

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS       –        –        –        –        –        IV

ABSTRACT        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        VI

TABLE OF CONTENTS        –        –        –        –        –        –        VII

LIST OF TABLES         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        XI

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2     Theoretical framework   –        –        –        –        –        7

1.3     Statement of the problem        –        –        –        –        12

1.4     Purpose of the Study     –        –        –        –        –        14

1.5     Research Questions       –        –        –        –        –        15

1.6     Research Hypotheses     –        –        –        –                  16

1.7     Assumptions        –        –        –        –        –        –        16

1.8     Significance of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        17     

1.9     Limitations of the Study          –        –        –        –        –        19

1.10   Delimitation of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        19

1.11   Definition of terms                  –        –        –        –        –        20

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Parental income and academic performance

of students  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        23

2.2     educational level of parents and

academic performance of students    –        –        –        30

2.3`   Parental involvement and academic

performance of students          –        –        –        –        –        33

2.4     parental occupations and academic

performance of students          –        –        –        –        –        39

2.5     Summary of Literature  –        –        –        –        –        45

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Design of the study        –        –        –        –        –        48

3.2     Area of study       –        –        –        –        –        –        48

3.3     Population of the study –        –        –        –        –        50

3.4     Sampling technique       –        –        –        –        –        50

3.5     Sample       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        51

3.6     Instrumentation    –        –        –        –        –        –        54

3.6.1 Validity of the Instrument        –        –        –        –        54

3.7     Procedure for data collection   –        –        –        –        55

3.8     Procedure for data preparation and

Scoring       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        76

3.9     Procedure for data analysis     –        –        –        –        56

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS

4.1. Presentation of result       –        –        –        –        –        –        59

4.2. Summary of findings        –        –        –        –        –        –        67

  • Discussion of findings   –        –        –        –        –        68

CHAPTER FIVE:    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1. Summary of the study      –        –        –        –        –        73

5.2 Conclusion     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        75

5.3. Recommendations –        –        –        –        –        –        76

 5.4. Suggestions for further research.        –        –        –        –        76

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

PARENTAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC VARIABLES AND SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS IN YAKURR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA