PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY IN MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING ORGANIZATION, UYO)

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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY IN MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING ORGANIZATION, UYO)

 TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

1.2 Statement of Problems

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Significance of the Study

1.5 Research Question

1.6 Research of Hypothesis

1.7 Scope of the Study

1.8 Definition of Terms

 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND                                                                     THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Brief Introduction

2.2 Conceptual /Theoretical Framework

2.3 process of performance appraisal

2.4 The Objective of Performance Appraisal

2.5 Techniques/Method of Performance Appraisal

2.6 Advantage/ Disadvantages of Performance Appraisal

2.7 Appraisal Interview

2.8 Importance of Performance Appraisal

2.9 Relationship Between Performances   Appraisal and Organizational performance

2.10 The Effect of Performance Appraisal on Organization             Performance

2.11     Leadership development and succession planning

2.12     Evaluation

2.13     The Benefits of Evaluation

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Area of study

3.3 Population of the study

3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique

3.5 Method of Data Collection

3.6 The Questionnaire

3.7 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION

4.0 Introduction

4.1 Data Presentation

4.2 Presentation of Data in section, A Personal Data

4.3 Test of Hypothesis

4.3 Discussions of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary of Findings

5.3 Conclusion

5.5 Recommendation

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1  Background of the Study

Institutionalization of performance appraisal started as far back as the industrial revolution when it was used as a means of measuring organizational productivity (Fundary, 2001). When (1994) affirmed that performance was incepted when the Robert Owen used modern colored block measure the achievement of employees workers in the cotton utilized as a disciplinary mechanism for punishing for performance (Kennedy and Dresser, 2001). This resulted in the negative notation of appraisal system which turned out to be by both the appraiser and appraise a confirmed by Robert and Pregitzer (2007).

“Performance appraisal is a yearly rite of passage in organizations that triggers dread and apprehension in the most experience bauble hardened manager”. The above quote summarized the extent to which the appraisal process is disliked by the evaluation. Subsequently, organizations tried to refine the methods linking it to other administrative method including reward, promotion, training and so forth arguing the employees achievement should not only the measured but evaluated and managed (Kennedy and Dresser, 2001). Despites the universal, there has been several analysis and with criticism of the effectiveness and use of performance appraisal within the organizational context but up to recent time the issues is skill being debated among scholars academicians and professionals and no system gas been successful is meeting the desire goals.

Performance appraisal is a means of measuring or assessing employee’s achievements within a stated period of time using reliable measurement criteria with the ultimate goals of providing information to superiors on how to improve employee’s effectiveness. There are tons and wind range of literature on performance appraisal. The term has been synonymous with performance management, performance review and performance evaluation. In the book “strategic performance management” the author defined performance appraisal as “a systematic and holistic process of work, planning monitoring and measurement aimed at continuously improving the terms and individual employees contribution to contribution to achievement of organizational goals”. (Akata, 2003).

The depicts performance appraisal is used as a means of establishing future goals, monitoring employee’s process based on specified job description, and measuring performance, teamwork and achievements based on specifying task that can be linked with organizational goals on objectives. Furthermore, performance appraisal is used to formally determine employees effectiveness and contribution (Ikranmullah et al, 2011). In addition Fleteha (2001) opined performance appraisal as a means by which organization develop competency improve employee motivation and achieve equitable allocation of resources. In essences, performance appraisal achieves multiple purposes from measurement to motivation and resource, allocation. As noted by Cleveland, Murphy and William (1989), performances appraisal systems can be used to motivate employment of skills, competences and expertise. In addition, performance evaluation can be said to be a process of measuring employees contribution which turn out to be beneficial both to the suf and the organization of large it carried out properly.

Moreover, Seiden sally and Jessica E. Sowa (2011) believes that the ultimate objective of any evaluation procedure is aligning individual goals and objectives in how they contribute to organizational growth and development. According to Bassey Esu and Inyang (2009), performance appraisal system is a means of investing employee achievement over a certain period of time for achieving organization goals. Consequently, performance appraisal is a means of knowledge sharing among subordinate and superior the adequately measure the process of the employees which will aid in making strategic human resources decisions.

In addition Atiomo (200) agree with Fajana (1997) that performance appraisal is a method of assessing the human resource capabilities and skills and also to identify areas of improvement (Fajana, 1997: Atiomo, 200. Obisi, 2010).

Atiomo (200) noted that, in order for performance appraisal to be effective, there must be clear job description hence, every individual needs to know what his role is the organization can be deduced the performance appraisal is the process through which an organization collect individuals date in terms of strengths and weakness in order to explore one’s opportunity and potential for development and growth while also determining future threats can be harmful to one’s care and the organizational selling at large which is subsequently communicated.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Looking on the issue on ground, most organization fails to appraise their staff in which the effect is the organization not recognizing their staff by not appraising them and not giving them what their contribution worth in the organization. Implementing and designing and employee’s performance appraisal plan will definitely increase productivity and motivate employee in an organization.

A study conducted by Agbo (2010) in some West African countries including Nigeria reveals that most organization in developing countries, do not have structure to implement employee performance appraisal system in an appropriate manner. Hence, employee found it very difficult to believe, that they are appreciated for what they are doing at their workplace.

Non-performance appraisal do not actually motivate employee to put in their beat at work it is a major issue in cooperate Nigeria body. Organization that do not have performance appraisal system plan based on the personality and nature of the employees hardly motivate their employees to work hard. It certain appraisal packages offered by the organization do not speak of their needs.

An average Nigerian workers, place more important to the appraisal package or benefit he/she will derive from working, thereby they are very concerned about their performance in an organization. Therefore in conclusion, it is of all these problems mentioned above, that the researcher now decides to go into the study and give recommendations on how to solve the problems.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

Listed below are the Objectives of the study

  1. To determine whether there is a relationship between performance appraisal and organizational productivity
  2. To identify if supervisors and management are quite supportive in application of performance appraisal.
  3. To determine whether performance appraisal improve the productivity of workers in an organization.
  4. To examine the effect of identified employee performance appraisal package on the overall productivity of employee in an organization.
  5. To evaluate the design and implementation of employees performance appraisal plans and policies in an organization.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION

In order achieve the objectives of this study the following question were developed by the research.

  1. Is there any relationship between performance appraisal and organizational productivity?
  2. Are supervisors and management quite supportive in application of performance appraisal?
  3. Does performance appraisal improve the productivity of workers in an organization?
  4. Is there current performance appraisal system adopted by your organization to improve the overall productivity of employee?
  5. Is there design and implementation of employees performance appraisal plans and policies in an organization?

1.5  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following hypothesis shall be tested in order to ascertain the validity of the researcher’ work.

  1. Ho: There is no relationship between performance Appraisal and organization productivity.

Hi: There is relationship between performance Appraisal and organizational productivity.

  1. Ho: Introduction of performance Appraisal will not improve the performance of works in an organization.

Hi: Introduction of performance Appraisal will improve the performance of workers in an organization.

 

 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study seeks to highlight and recommend best employee performance practice that can be adopted in an organization by bringing out the various employee performance practices which the organization has undertake to increase its productivity and contribute to  the growth of  the economy, development of the community which it operates and the country at large.

This study will therefore, help enlighten management of various organizations of the various effects of employee performance Appraisal plans and packages on the productivity in a manufacturing organization. The study will also bring out specifically, the employee appraisal packages which the organization has not been able to bring out to encourage and motivate employees. This study will go a long way to illustrate how organization should treat employees in order to increase productivity.

1.7  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of performance Appraisal includes the following:

Providing employees with a better understanding of their role and responsibility, increase confidence through recognizing strength, while identifying the need to improve weakness, improving working relationship and communication between the supervisor and subordinates, increase commitments to organizational goals and assists in personnel decision such as promotions or allocating rewards and allowing time for self- reflection, self appraisal and personal goal settings.

 1.8  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The research encountered some limitations in regards to the availability of information, this was due to the institution working ethics, the researcher could not get access to vital information since it was treated as confidential and the targeted respondent’s member was not attained, since some employees were on break.

Inadequate funds and time constraint was a limiting factor since lectures were going on simultaneously. Literature relating to this study was not sufficient enough for thorough research as a result limiting the collection of relevant data.

Financial constraint including browsing, typing, photocopy limited the process of the research work. Limited time make for difficulty in procuring materials while carrying out the research work.

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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY IN MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING ORGANIZATION, UYO)

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