THE EFFECT OF PETROLEUM BY-PRODUCTS (FUEL AND KEROSENE) ON THE HAEMOGLOBIN OF AFRICAN CAT FISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS)

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THE EFFECT OF PETROLEUM BY-PRODUCTS (FUEL AND KEROSENE) ON THE HAEMOGLOBIN OF AFRICAN CAT FISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS)

 

ABSTRACT

The effects of petroleum by-products (fuel and kerosene) on the hematology of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was studied. Ten juvenile fishes were introduced in each aquarium, and  held for 24 hours in the laboratory, inside these aquaria, filled with 10 liters of unchlorinated well water. After 24 hours, fuel and  kerosene (500ml each) were introduced in each of the aquaria, while the third was used as control. Packed cell volume (PCV) values of the fish in fuel was 28.66+7.10a and was found lower than that in kerosene which was 29.67+ 71a . Hb reported in this study were 10.33+0.62a and 10.92 +0.51a  for the fish in fuel and kerosene respectively.  White blood cell recorded during this study was 188.98+4.88a and 190.01+ 3.20a  for fish in fuel and kerosene respectively are lower in control which was 290 +2.78a. Red blood cell values obtained from the fish in kerosene (2.96 +022a) in this study was higher than that observed in fish in fuel (2.42 +0.12a .The Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) values observed in this study (117.68+ 4.83a   and  120.20+ 2.01a) for the fish in fuel and kerosene respectively are lower than the control 132.20 +3.82a (fl). Mean cell haemoglobin values observed in this study were 42.65+1.99a  and 45.41 +0.02a for the fish in fuel and kerosene respectively. The higher lymphocytes (190.71 +5.23a) was observed in C. gariepinus  in than the fish in fuel which has lymphocyte level of  185.65+5.13a  these two compared to the control which has lymphocytes of 210.33 +7.05. However, all the blood parameters of fish species recorded during this study were within the healthy ranges for fish but suggest that morality depends on concentration.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                        i

Approval                                         ii
Certificate                                     iii
Dedication                                     iv
Acknowledgement                                 v
List of table                                     viii
Abstract                                         x

CHAPTER ONE
1.0    Introduction
1.1   Background of studies
1.2  Statement of problem
1.3  Objective of the study
1.4  Significance of study
1.5  Limitation of the study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review
2.1 The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
2.2  Eco¬nomic im¬por¬tance  of african catfish for hu¬mans
2.3  Petrochemicals
2.4  Sources of petrochemical spill on aquatic Environment
2.5  Toxicity of petrochemicals(petrol) on  fish
2.6  Haematological examination of the effect of petroleum by-products     on african catfish

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and method                            

3.1  Materials used for the experiment
3.2  Methods of sample collection
3.3  Method sample analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Presentation And Analysis Of Result

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0    Discussion, Conclusion and recommendation
5.1    Discussion
5.2    Conclusion
5.3    Recommendation
Reference                                     

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1:    Blood profile of the Juvenile catfish Clarias gariepinus exposed to fuel, kerosene and the control.

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THE EFFECT OF PETROLEUM BY-PRODUCTS (FUEL AND KEROSENE) ON THE HAEMOGLOBIN OF AFRICAN CAT FISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS)

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